• Electrical Properties

    Characterization of Electrical Properties

    The main representatives among electricity-sensitive techniques based on SFM are Scanning Capacitance Microscopy (SCM), Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy (SKPM), Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscopy (SSRM) and Conductive AFM (C-AFM, which, in fact, is a more general form SSRM).

    All these techniques involve using a conductive tip and a voltage bias applied between tip and sample. Therefore, it is not an over-generalization to consider Electric Force Microscopy (EFM) as a collective term for all mentioned techniques since all they utilize electric driving forces. Sometimes investigators use specific names for particular techniques such as the mentioned above and sometimes not, using the common term "EFM". At the same time it should be noted that this abbreviature often refers to Electrostatic Force Microscopy which can be also considered a sort of Electric Force Microscopy. An overview on each follows backed up by specific real-life applications.

    Scanning Capacitance Microscopy is used to measure the capacitance between tip and sample while maintaining a constant height of the tip (in noncontact mode) or a constant force (in contact mode). The latter is used when a nonconductive layer such as an oxide covers the sample or when tip is intentionally oxidized beforehand.

    A difference in capacitance in different areas of the sample may be an indication of:

    1) variations of surface potential of the sample;
    2) changing media properties between tip and sample.

    Variations in surface potential may be caused by variation in carrier concentration that may reveal for instance dopant level distribution on a semiconductor surface, or, say, phase inhomogeneity in alloys (different work functions for different phase components).

     As for media properties, the capacitance is sensitive to:

    1) the distance between tip and sample, hence variations in thickness of the intermediate layer such as an oxide can be measured;
    2) the dielectric properties of the intermediate layer, for example, various defects such as small pin-holes in the etching mask, sources of current leakage in Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) structures, surface conducting contaminants etc. which can be readily visualized.

    Surface potential as well as capacitance variations can be measured also by means of Scanning Kelvin Force/Probe Microscopy (SKFM, SKPM or even SKM), which can be regarded as a type of SCM. The classical vibrating Kelvin capacitor is known to be used for more than a century in determining the surface potential. The periodical variation in the distance between the plates of an electrical capacitor made of a pair of investigated conductors leads to a variation of its capacitance and the appearance of alternate current which can be measured. The analogous oscillating capacitor is inherent to the system that consists of a conducting cantilever operating in dynamic noncontact mode and a conductive sample. This resemblance gave rise to the name of this technique. Though, capacitance of such a system is very low and the current flowing through is extremely low as well. Therefore, this technique does not measure current but exploits the extraordinary sensitivity of AFM to detect even a very small deflection or frequency shift of a vibrating cantilever due to electrostatic interactions. In general the measurement is carried out in the following manner: when applying AC voltage of frequency w (which usually differs from the resonance frequency of the cantilever) between tip and sample it is necessary to minimize these interactions by adjusting a DC bias, which is equal to the surface potential of the sample at each scan point.

    Karpov et al. [1401] describe the application of EFM, and SKPM in particular, to quantitative measurements of voltages in metal interconnects and planar resistors, as well as to imaging pn junctions and trapped charges. A two-pass technique (Liftmode) is implemented to acquire sequential topographic and electrostatic force data. During the first pass, the surface morphology is recorded along a scan line in tapping mode. During the second pass, the oscillating tip is raised 30 - 500 nm above the surface and scanned along the same scan line reproducing the previously recorded topography but gathering electrostatic force data. Cantilevers with resonance frequencies fo of 60 and 200 KHz are used. The frequency shift Dfo was measured by a frequency modulation technique with a typical resolution of 0.1 Hz. The frequency shift of the oscillating cantilever caused by the presence of an electrostatic force F can be estimated by the following equation:

    assuming that the force derivative term does not significantly affect the vibration mode of the cantilever (dF/dz < k, where k is the cantilever spring constant). Therefore, the higher the resonance frequency of the cantilever and the smaller its spring constant, the larger the change in resonance frequency.

    When low frequency (w = 1 - 200 Hz) AC voltages are applied to the cantilever, the magnitude of frequency shift Dfo shows clear linear dependence of the AC amplitude. It can be shown that periodical alterations in the resonance frequency consist of two counterparts D foDf o(w) + D f o(2w) corresponding to a pair of electrostatic forces F1(w) and F2(2w): at low AC amplitudes alterations occur mainly with the frequency w, whereas at high AC amplitudes the component D fo (2w) dominates. Negative and positive frequency shifts were observed over p and n-regions of the junctions.

    The sensitivity of EFM to map local surface charging effects of a very smooth (RMS of merely 0.25 nm) silicon wafer after polishing is also demonstrated. The features correspond to the direction of the polishing. The contrast of the features is found to depend on the tip potential indicating their electrostatic origin. The authors suggest that the features represent local charges trapped in the native oxide.

    Bresse and Blayac [1404] use EFM/AFM in liftmode for quantitative determination of the sheet resistance of an epitaxial layer under ohmic contact. The authors use the first harmonic force component F1(w) for measurements. The corresponding amplitude of the tip vibration excited by applied voltage of frequency w is determined by the following equation:

    where k is the spring constant of the cantilever and Q is its quality factor. For a cantilever with k = 2 N/m, Q ~ 200, excitation voltage amplitude V1 = 2V and tip-sample bias V0 = 1V as well as lift height of 200 nm the amplitude amounts to 24 nm. The sensitivity of the potential measurements are reported to be ± 10 mV. The values of the sheet resistance obtained by EFM and using the traditional Transmission Line Model (TLM) structure is in excellent agreement of ± 3 %. It is found that the experimental profile of the potential measured using EFM is fitted with two determined values for the epitaxial layer sheet resistance outside and under ohmic contact. This allows to conclude that the sheet resistance of the epilayer under the metal is not affected by the ohmic contact formation due to limited diffusion of the Au/Ti composition into the semiconductor.

    Qualitative studies of the cross-section potential profile of microcrystalline silicon (µc-Si) solar cells by SKPM are performed by Breymesser et al. [866, 1227]. The quantitative description fails because grinding and polishing procedures led to the formation of abundant surface states that influence the position of the Fermi level. Measurements and 1D simulations reveal unsuitable effective charge distribution in the middle of the intrinsic layer resulting in reduced drift-field-assisted collection of photoinduced charge carriers. It is also found that a reverse polarized p-Si/n-TCO (Transparent Conductive Oxide) diode sequenced with the p-i-n diode can be deduced from the data obtained. This diode is likely responsible for the low open-circuit voltages of the solar cells. Thus, SKPM can be successfully used for assessing the quality of the intrinsic µc-Si layer and to provide suggestions for further improvement of the deposition processes.

    Böhm [1403] describes an electric force tester for submicron device characterization working at GHz frequencies. The tester is capable of measuring very fast voltage changes. As the mechanical response ability of the probe precludes the measurement of fast voltage changes a mixing scheme is considered where the probe is biased with either a sine wave or a sampling voltage pulse. In this way high measurement bandwidths exceeding 100 GHz in combination with a spatial resolution below 100 nm can be achieved. The author claims that the spatial resolution in the voltage contrast mode depends strongly on the probe-sample surface separation. For typical separations of 50 nm a spatial resolution below 100 nm can be attained. The voltage sensitivity is better than 1 mV. As an example a combined high resolution measurement of an electron-beam written meander waveguide is demonstrated. The exact position of the doped area (300 nm width) within a waveguide of 800 nm in width can not be estimated from the topography image. For the voltage contrast mapping the probe is lifted to a fixed height (50 nm) above the device surface and the local deflection of the probe caused by the electrical force interaction is gathered at every measurement point via a computer and a voltage contrast image is generated. A 1 GHz, 5 dBm signal is fed onto the waveguide, the probe is biased with a sampling pulse with a repetition frequency of 1 GHz + 10 KHz. A future improvement involves the incorporation of an integrated pulse generator into the probe itself. A prototype is also demonstrated.

    Ferroelectric thin films are of growing importance due to the possible use in non-volatile random access memories. Materials with high permittivity (the so-called "high-k materials" [928, 1046]) offer advantages in building low-sized capacitors as the active elements in such memory devices. The continuous shrinking of their dimensions imposes insurmountable restrictions on the use of materials with 'regular' k values in this field. Electric Force Microscopy is a valuable tool for investigating such objects. However, ferroelectrics are much more complicated materials than for example metals or even semiconductors and their quantitative description by means of EFM should take into account the nonlinearity of their properties during measurements due to the piezoelectric effect and the electrostriction. Franke et al. [1406] describe the procedure of extracting spontaneous polarization information from experimental EFM data. The authors emphasize that the first harmonic EFM-signal coincides with the polarization signal only for materials in which the permittivity is constant in the measured area. Therefore, they consider a contribution of mentioned above electromechanically induced forces besides electrostatic ones (also called "Maxwell stress"). It is shown mathematically and experimentally that spontaneous polarization can be separated from the first harmonic EFM signal by dividing the latter by a permittivity-dependent function. This conclusion is valid only for contact mode. Estimations give rise to assert that in the case of thin films with a high permittivity, a gap of air only a few nanometers thick would dominate the second harmonic signal and prevent an accurate determination of the film permittivity. Therefore, noncontact mode is not applicable for the separation of polarization.

    For studying of piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials so-called piezoresponse mode AFM (PFM) is also used [843]. The technique is based on the detection of electromechanical surface oscillations due to the inverse piezoelectric effect induced by tip AC bias. Spectroscopic variant of PFM allows local electromechanical hysteresis loops to be obtained. PFM can also be used to modify local domain structure on the nanometer level by applying dc bias to the tip. Relatively soft (0.03 - 0.3 N/m) cantilevers are optimal for high lateral resolution (~ 7 - 10 nm), while stiff cantilevers (1 - 50 N/m) are required for quantitative measurements.

    A similar technique is used by Franke et al. [1408], who report the experiments on EFM induced repolarization of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films. It is known that remanent polarization degrades under applied external stress or due to internal stress peculiar to thin films. To diminish this unwanted process better understanding and qualitative description of stress-induced repolarization effects are necessary. It is found that the depolarization is set off at 93 MPa going on until 260 MPa and originates from Maxwell stress caused by electrostatic interaction between the EFM tip and the dielectric sample. Authors believe that results remain to be true even if the domains cannot be resolved because of their small dimensions. Thus, stress dependent polarization measurements significantly extend the efficiency of Electric Force Microscopy.

    Resolution and problems of quantitative measurements by means of Kelvin Probe Microscopy are discussed in details by Jacobs et al. [1231]. A model, which correlates the measured potential with the actual surface potential distribution, is introduced in this paper. It is demonstrated that the observed potential is a locally weighted average over all potentials present on the sample surface. From the comparison of numerical simulations based on the model proposed with experimental data from test structures follows that the good resolution in potential maps is obtained by long and slender but slightly blunt tips on cantilevers of minimal width and surface area. Authors specially stress that special attention must be paid to the geometry of the tip and cantilever because the cantilever surface predominates the local electrostatic interaction when the tip apex size is too small. Here again, conducting carbon nanotube tips seem to be the best choice [1247, 1611].

    A thorough overview of the existing probes for various EFM techniques is done by Trenkler et al. [1266]. The authors emphasize on applications on Si at high contact forces. Two classes of probes are examined geometrically and electrically: Si sensors with a conductive coating and integrated pyramidal tips made of metal or diamond. Swift and nondestructive procedures to characterize the geometrical and electrical properties of the probes prior to the actual AFM experiment are developed.

    Robin et al. [1229] measure the cross-sectional electric field and potential distribution of a cleaved AIIIBV-based p-i-n laser diode using SKPM with a lateral resolution as high as 50 nm. The data obtained is in a good agreement with 2D simulations despite some discrepancies in the absolute values. The understated measured value as compared to the simulated one is attributed to presence of surface traps due to the exposure of the sample to the air as well as consequences of incomplete ionization of dopant impurities.

    The phenomenon of understated measured values is also mentioned by Simpkins et al. [1232] who study variations of surface potential in epitaxial GaN (0001) by means of SKPM. The measurements confirm that, as reported in other studies, surface potential variations amount ~ 0.1 - 0.2 V in magnitude, and that variations are associated to a large degree with threading dislocations present at the GaN surface. Their density apparently decreases as the film becomes thicker. It is stated that the finite size of the probe tip will cause the measured value of a highly localized variation in surface potential to be smaller in magnitude than the actual value, particularly for features that are comparable in size to or smaller than the probe tip radius. Therefore, actual surface potential variations in the vicinity of a threading dislocation at the GaN film may be considerably larger than those measured by SKPM. Sophisticated simulations proved this assumption. Authors emphasize that this decrease should be taken into consideration for any studies of highly localized features in surface electronic structure using this and related techniques. Thus, the recommendations of Jacobs et al. [1231] concerning the statement that the tips are to be slightly blunted is inapplicable to explorations of the structures with subnanometer electrically active features.

    Earlier Hansen et al. [1236] study the same material by a combination of AFM and Scanning Capacitance Microscopy. The points where screw dislocations exit the surface is observed clearly by tapping mode AFM. Their sizes are estimated to be within a 30 - 55 nm range which is less than those from the work of Simpkins et al. [1232] who report of 100 nm average diameters. From the simple comparison of SPKM and SCM images it is concluded that the resolution and contrast of SPKM is much better. Nonetheless, nowadays Scanning Capacitance Microscopy is also a powerful characterization tool, that meets the rigid requirements on resolution, time efficiency and implementability for practical industrial use. SCM is a serious candidate for 2D carrier probing not only for passive but also active electronic devices in both the research and the manufacturing phase [1239].

    In general, the SCM technique involves the tip being in contact with oxidized surface usually forming a Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor structure. Data is acquired under various DC biases VDC with a superimposed AC sinusoidal signal, which is needed to obtain the dC/dV derivatives at every VDC value. Changes in capacitance are related to (majority) carrier concentration. For accurate measurements of dC a specific RF module with a sensor working at about 1GHz is commonly used.

    It should be noted that the problem of quantitative determining of 3D dopant profiles in semiconductor devices is very complicated since carrier concentration usually does not coincide with real dopant concentration especially in compensated semiconductors. This problem can be solved through sophisticated simulations and development of more complicated procedures. In this sense, Scanning Capacitance Microscopy itself is not an entirely new technique; it is rather an implementation of C-V methods at the micro- and nanoscale. Development of special simulation software packages and accounting of probe tip size and shape is now the best way to improve resolution and make an interpretation of the data received more relevant and quantitative. Examples of a such simulation endeavours are the modification of TSUPREM-4 and MEDICI packages by Kang et al. [1235], the direct inversion method by Marchiando et al. [1220] and the SCaMsim simulation package described by Ciampolini et al. [1237, 1238].

    The direct inversion or Calibration Curve Method (CCM) is now widely used to calculate theoretical C-V curves for series of model samples with uniform dopant levels in order to built SCM-signal-to-doping conversion curves for further mapping of the measured signals into doping levels. Various tip curvature radii and oxide thicknesses are also taken into account. In some particular situations, for example, for slowly changing dopant profiles this method gives a good approximation. Later the authors report the limitations of this method [1265] and show that without a correction for relative steep profile gradients, SCM leads to underestimation and displacement of dopant peak. Concentration of the impurities is estimated to be 50% of the actual one.

    The SCaMsim program is based on the DESSISISE package for electronic device simulation by the finite element method and also involves MATLAB™ sessions. The authors extend the calibration curve method and build a more extensive C-V database with data calculated for a wide set of tip-sample geometries. It is shown that the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) highly depends on the dopant level and the surface oxide thickness. The higher the dopant level, the noisier the signal becomes.

    Systematic analysis of noise sources during Scanning Capacitance Microscopy measurements is performed by Zavyalov et al. [1267]. The authors suppose that the main noise sources are capacitance sensor noise and oxide-semiconductor surface induced noise. For regular tip sizes, the dominant noise in SCM measurements is caused by variations in the quality of the surface due to variations in the densitiy of oxide traps (nonstationary noise) and in the oxide layer thickness (stationary noise). Heat treatment under ultraviolet irradiation or in a hydrogen ambient is found to be an effective way to reduce or even eliminate the former type of SCM noise. In addition, by reducing the topographic roughness the stationary noise can be lowered significantly. It is shown that the capacitance sensor noise depends on the capacitance sensor tuning parameters and under proper conditions can be reduced to a negligible level for standard probe tips used in SCM measurements.

    SCM seems to be a very attractive technique for pn-junction delineation [1240, 1241, 1244, 1264], imaging of active and passive devices under operation that gives valuable information for better understanding of the physical processes in them, failure analysis and in-line testing equipment [1234, 1242, 1268, 1269].

    A similar technique is used even for studying very complex structures such as metal-filled anodic alumina with Mikromasch cantilevers [1405].

    Similarly to SCM, Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscopy could be regarded as an implementation of the well-established Spreading Resistance Profiling (SRP) method for use at the micro- and nanoscale. However, the generic SRP is a dual probe technique, therefore the difference is non-trivial. SSRM is another promising tool for determination of dopant distribution in semiconductor materials as well as for exact pn-junction delineation [1243, 1270, 1271, 1273, 1278]. Results of cross-sectional profiling of semiconductor devises are in good agreement with Second Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) data. The development of commercial AFM equipped with SSRM unit (e.g. manufactured by Bruker) greatly facilitates the process of data acquisition.

    Historically, the first target for SSRM measurements has been silicon, whereas later researchers focus mainly on AIIIBV semiconductors (see corresponding references in [1274, 1275, 1276, 1277]).

    To improve the depth resolution, the samples for the conventional dual probe SRP require the preparation of beveled surfaces, whose quality is found to affect significantly the measured contact resistance. Moreover, certain corrections are needed to account for junction shifts from carrier diffusion due to the beveled surface. In contrast, SSRM offers a much higher spatial resolution (several times smaller than the tip radius) and eliminates the need for surface beveling. The SRP tip is usually a 10 µm tungsten alloy styl as opposed to the 50 - 100 nm (or even better) diamond like carbon coated (DLC) SSRM tip. Voltage biases used for SRP are an order of magnitude higher than those for SSRM. Dynamic range for carrier concentrations in both n- and p-type Si covers five orders of magnitude 1015 - 1020 cm-3 [1274].

    The effects of the applied tip voltage, scan rate, surface preparatlon and tip choice in SSRM measurements are discussed by Kline et al. [1272]. It is found that the active region of the laser structure, where the band gap is lowest, could be identified in the voltage dependence of the SSRM images.

    Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy uses conductive cantilevers in "full-contact" mode similar to SSRM. C-AFM is less sensitive and possesses lower lateral resolution as compared with STM. Nonetheless, it still shows very attractive parameters sufficient to address a number of scientific and industrial problems. Furthermore, in contrast to STM, it does not require delicate sample preparation and maintaining the proper measurement conditions.

    Objects investigated by means of C-AFM vary widely. These are thin SiO2 layers in MOS devices [141, 461], high-temperature superconductors [422], CoSi2 precipitates in cobalt-implanted silicon [488], microcrystalline silicon [584], Anopore™ ultrafiltration membranes [1359] and many others.

    None of the techniques mentioned so far is capable of direct measurement of surface potential. Nanopotentiometry or Scanning Voltage Microscopy (SVM) is another relatively novel EFM technique, which makes this possible [2004, 2009, 2032, 2038, 2804, 2805, 2806, 2807]. In nanopotentiometry, a conductive SPM tip is used in contact mode as a voltage probe in order to measure the distribution of electrical potential on the crossection of an operating device. The macroscopic quantity of voltage can be related to the microscopic quantity of internal potential in an operating device. The determination of the internal potential distribution is pertinent to many other local properties, such as carrier concentration, band positions, quasi-Fermi level position, etc. This information is of use for the calibration of device simulations. In contrast to the other EFM techniques, the measuring tip does not significantly perturb the device under test because state-of-the-art voltmeters offer very high input impedance (> 1014 Ohm). The resolving power of nanopotentiometry is comparable to or higher than that of SCM or SKPM, being in the order of the AFM tip radius. But since contact mode is used, special probes are required combining both hardness and good conductivity.

    Nanopotentiometry is successfully used for the characterization of Si-based MOSFETs [2004, 2009], buried heterostructure lasers [2032] and the InP p-n junction depletion region [2038].

    There are a number of other EFM techniques not described above such as Voltage-Modulated AFM (VM-AFM) [935] or "pure" Electrostatic Force Microscopy [1407], and their quantity extends year by year.

    Please, send all comments and suggestions concerning these pages to info@mikromasch.com

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    1267 Noise in scanning capacitance microscopy measurements
    V. V. Zavyalov, J. S. McMurray, and C. C. Williams
    J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B18 (2000), 3, pp. 1125-1133
    1263 Nonmonotonic behavior of the scanning capacitance microscope for large dynamic range samples
    Robert Stephenson, Anne Verhulst, Peter De Wolf, Matty Caymax, and Wilfried Vandervorst
    J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B18 (2000), 1, pp. 405-408
    1407 Observation of ferroelectric microdomains in LiNbO3 crystals by electrostatic force microscopy
    H. Nagata, J. Ichikawa, T. Fukuda, S. Tsunekawa
    Applied Surface Science, 137 (1999), 1-4, 61-70
    1264 Pn-junction delineation in Si devices using scanning capacitance spectroscopy
    H. Edwards, V. A. Ukraintsev, R. San Martin, F. S. Johnson, P. Menz, Sh. Walsh, S. Ashburn, K. S. Wills, K. Harvey and M. Chang
    J. Appl. Phys. 87, (2000) 3, pp. 1485-1495
    62 Quantitative electrostatic force measurement in AFM
    S. Jeffery, A. Oral, J.B. Pethica
    Applied Surface Science, 157 (2000), 4, 280-284
    1242 Quantitative Ultra Shallow Dopant Profile Measurement by Scanning Capacitance Microscope
    Yoshio Kikuchi, Tomohiro Kubo and Masataka Kase
    FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J., 38 (2002),1, 75-85
    1231 Resolution and contrast in Kelvin probe force microscopy
    H. O. Jacobs, P. Leuchtmann, O. J. Homan and A. Stemmer
    J. Appl. Phys. 84 (1998), 3, 1168-1173
    1238 SCaMsim, a new 3D simulation tool for SCM
    L. Ciampolini, M. Ciappa, P. Malberti, and W. Fichtner
    2000 international conference on characterization and metrology for ULSI technology, Gaithersburg, June 26-29, 2000
    1270 Scanning Capacitance and Spreading Resistance Microscopy of SiC Multiple-pn-Junction Structure
    J. Suda, S. Nakamura, M. Miura, T. Kimoto, H. Matsunami
    Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 41 (2002) 1A/B, pp. L40-L42
    1269 Scanning capacitance microscopy imaging of silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors
    R. N. Kleiman, M. L. O'Malley, F. H. Baumann, J. P. Garno, and G. L. Timp
    J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B18 (2000), 4, pp. 2034-2038
    1236 Scanning capacitance microscopy imaging of threading dislocations in GaN films grown on (0001) sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
    P. J. Hansen, Y. E. Strausser, A. N. Erickson, E. J. Tarsa, P. Kozodoy, E. G. Brazel, J. P. Ibbetson, U. Mishra, V. Narayanamurti, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck
    Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, (1998) 18, 2247-2249
    1227 Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy for Investigations of Microcrystalline Silicon PIN-Solar Cells
    A. Breymesser, V. Schlosser, D. Peiro, C. Voz, J. Bertomeu, J. Andreu, J. Summhammer
    Proc. of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (Glasgow, May 2000)
    1232 Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy of surface electronic structure in GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy
    B. S. Simpkins, D. M. Schaadt, and E. T. Yua
    J. Appl. Phys. 91 (2002), 12, 9924-9929
    1046 Scanning probe microscopy - a tool for the investigation of high-k materials
    S.A. Landau, N. Junghans, P.-A. Weisz, B.O. Kolbesen, A. Olbrich, G. Schindler, W. Hartner, F. Hintermaier, C. Dehm, C. Mazure
    Applied Surface Science, 157 (2000), 4 (April 02), 387-392
    1271 Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscopy (SSRM) of 2-D Carrier Distributions
    Peter DeWolf
    March (1999) meeting of the American Physical Society, SC35.03
    1243 Scanning spreading resistance microscopy and spectroscopy for routine and quantitative two-dimensional carrier profiling
    P. Eyben, M. Xu, N. Duhayon, T. Clarysse, S. Callewaert, and W. Vandervorst
    J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B20 (2002), 1, pp. 471-478
    1275 Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscopy Current Transport Studies on Doped III-V Semiconductors
    R. P. Lu, K. L. Kavanagh, St. J. Dixon-Warren, A. J. SpringThorpe, R. Streater and I. Calder
    J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20B (2002) 4, pp. 1682-1689
    1273 Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscopy Study of an MOCVD Grown InP Optoelectronic Structure
    St. J. Dixon-Warren, R. P. Lu, S. Ingrey, D. Macquistan, T. Bryskiewicz, G. Smith and B. Bryskiewicz
    J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19A (2001) 4, pp. 1752-1757
    923 Semiconductor acousto-electric potential detection using a force microscope
    S. Hosaka, A. Kikukawa
    Applied Surface Science, 140 (1999), 3-4, 394-399
    1237 Simulation of SCM measurements on micro-sectioned and bevelled n+-p samples
    L. Ciampolini, F. Giannazzo, M. Ciappa, W. Fichtner, and V. Raineri
    Mat. Sci. in Semic. Proc., 4(1-3), (2001), pp. 85-88
    928 SrBi2Ta2O9 has only two polar axes - a problem for high density ferroelectric memory devices
    K. Franke, G. Martin, M. Weihnacht, A.V. Sotnikov
    Solid State Communications, 119 (2001), 3, 117-119
    1278 SSRM analysis of dopant diffusion in InP based structures
    Geva, M.; Akulova, Y.; Ougazzaden, A.; Holman, J.P.; Richter, S.; Kleiman, R.N.
    Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 14-18 May (2000), Williamsburg, VA, USA, pp 48 -51
    1408 Stress-induced depolarization in PZT thin films, measured by means of electric force microscopy
    K. Franke, H. Huelz, M. Weihnacht
    Surface Science, 416 (1998), 1-2, 59-67
    717 Structures and local electrical properties of ferroelectric polymer thin films in thermal process investigated by dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy
    T. Fukuma, K. Kobayashi, T. Horiuchi, H. Yamada, K. Matsushige
    Thin Solid Films, 397 (2001), 1-2, 133-137
    1409 Study of the surface potential and photovoltage of conducting polymers using electric force microscopy
    J.N. Barisci, R. Stella, G.M. Spinks, G.G. Wallace
    Synthetic Metals, 124 (2001), 2-3, 407-414
    935 Surface charge compensation and ferroelectric domain structure of triglycine sulfate revealed by voltage-modulated scanning force microscopy
    V. Likodimos, M. Labardi, M. Allegrini, N. Garcia, V.V. Osipov
    Surface Science, 490 (2001), 1-2, 76-84
    164 Tip-on-tip: a novel AFM tip configuration for the electrical characterization of semiconductor devices
    W. Kulisch, W. Vandervorst, T. Hantschel, T. Trenkler, A. Malave, D. Buchel, E. Oesterschulze
    Microelectronic Engineering, 46 (1999), 1-4), 113-116
    1277 Towards sub-10nm carrier profiling with spreading resistance techniques
    T. Clarysse, P. Eyben, T. Hantschel, W. Vandervorst
    Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 4 (2001), 1-3, 61-66
    1276 Two-dimensional profiling of carriers in a buried heterostructure multi-quantum-well laser: Calibrated scanning spreading resistance microscopy and scanning capacitance microscopy
    D. Ban, E. H. Sargent, St. J. Dixon-Warren, T. Grevatt, G. Knight, G. Pakulski, A. J. SpringThorpe, R. Streater and J. K. White
    J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20B (2002) 5, pp. 2126-2132
    1295 Atomic-scale variations in contact potential difference on Au/Si(111) 7x7 surface in ultrahigh vacuum
    S. Kitamura, K. Suzuki, M. Iwatsuki, C.B. Mooney
    Applied Surface Science, 157 (2000), 4, 222-227
    1690 Carotene as a Molecular Wire: Conducting Atomic Force Microscopy
    G. Leatherman, E.N. Durantini, D. Gust, T.A. Moore, A.L. Moore, S. Stone, Z. Zhou P. Rez Y.Z. Liu and S.M. Lindsay
    Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 103 (1999) 4006-4010
    1682 Characterization of the CuGaSe2/ZnSe Interface Using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy
    S. Sadewasser, Th. Glatzel, M. Rusu, A. Meeder, D. Fuertes Marrón, A. Jager-Waldau, and M.Ch. Lux-Steiner
    Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 668 (2001), H5.4.1.
    1678 CuGaSe2 solar cell cross section studied by Kelvin probe force microscopy in ultrahigh vacuum
    Th. Glatzel, D. Fuertes Marrón, Th. Schedel-Niedrig, S. Sadewasser, and M. Ch. Lux-Steiner
    Appl. Phys. Lett. 81 (2002) 2017
    1296 High resolution imaging of contact potential difference using a novel ultrahigh vacuum non-contact atomic force microscope technique
    K. Suzuki, M. Iwatsuki, S. Kitamura
    Applied Surface Science, 140 (1999), 3-4, 265-270
    1680 High-resolution work function imaging of single grains of semiconductor surfaces
    S. Sadewasser, Th. Glatzel, M. Rusu, A. Jager-Waldau, and M. Ch. Lux-Steiner
    Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 (2002) 2979
    1685 High-sensitivity quantitative Kelvin probe microscopy by non-contact ultra-high-vacuum atomic force microscopy
    Ch. Sommerhalter, Th. W. Matthes, Th. Glatzel, A. Jager-Waldau, and M. Ch. Lux-Steiner
    Appl. Phys. Lett. 75 (1999), 286
    1289 Imaging breakdown spots in SiO2 films and MOS devices with a Conductive Atomic Force Microscope
    M. Porti, M.C. Blum, M. Nafria and X. Aymerich
    Virtual Symposium IRPS 2002, Hyatt Regency Dallas, Dallas, TX, April 7-11, (2002) Vol. 2, Session 6
    1683 Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for the Characterization of Semiconductor Surfaces in Chalcopyrite Solar Cells
    Ch. Sommerhalter, S. Sadewasser, Th. Glatzel, Th. W. Matthes, A. Jager-Waldau, and M. Ch. Lux-Steiner
    Surface Science 482-485 (2001), pp. 1362
    1290 Kelvin probe force microscopy in ultra high vacuum using amplitude modulation detection of the electrostatic forces
    C. Sommerhalter, T. Glatzel, T.W. Matthes, A. Jager-Waldau, M.C. Lux-Steiner
    Applied Surface Science, 157 (2000), 4, 263-268
    1291 Kelvin probe microscopy measurements of surface potential change under wear at low loads
    B. Bhushan, A.V. Goldade
    Wear, 244 (2000), 1-2, 104-117
    1661 Local surface potential measurement of Pd/GaAs contact and anodized aluminum films using scanning probe microscopy
    H.-Y. Nie, K. Horiuchi, H. Yamauchi, and J. Masai
    Nanotechnology 8 (1997), pp. A24-A31
    1288 Measurements and analysis of surface potential change during wear of single-crystal silicon (100) at ultralow loads using Kelvin probe microscopy
    B. Bhushan, A.V. Goldade
    Applied Surface Science, 157 (2000), 4, 373-381
    1670 Observations of self-organized InAs nanoislands on GaAs (0 0 1) surface by electrostatic force microscopy
    P. Girard, A. N. Titkov, M. Ramonda, V. P. Evtikhiev and V. P. Ulin
    Applied Surface Science, 201 (2002) 1-4, pp. 1-8
    1287 Potential profile measurement of GaAs MESFETs passivated with low-temperature grown GaAs layer by Kelvin probe force microscopy
    T. Mizutani, S. Kishimoto, K. Maezawa, E. Kohn, P. Schmid, K. Matsunami, T. Takeyama, T. Usunami, M. Tomizawa, K.M. Lipka
    Solid-State Electronics, 43 (1999), 8, 1547-1553
    1677 Quantitative Work Function Measurements on a Nanometer Scale: Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy in Ultrahigh Vacuum
    S. Sadewasser
    In "Science, Technology and Education of Microscopy: an Overview", Vol. 1, ed. A. Méndez-Vilas (Formatex, Badajoz, Spain, 2002), in print (2002).
    1698 Reproducible Measurement of Single-Molecule Conductivity
    X. D. Cui, A. Primak, X. Zarate, J. Tomfohr, O. F. Sankey, A. L. Moore, T. A. Moore, D. Gust, G. Harris and S. M. Lindsay
    Science 294 (2001), 571-574
    1230 Scanning Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy - Chances and Limitations for In-Situ Delamination Studies
    E. Hornung, M. Stratmann, M. Rohwerder
    The 200th Meeting of The Electrochemical Society, Inc. and the 52nd Meeting of The International Society of Electrochemistry, San Francisco, California, September 2-7, (2001), 568
    1051 Scanning probe microscopy characterisation of masked low energy implanted nanometer structures
    T. Winzell, S. Anand, I. Maximov, E.-L. Sarwe, M. Graczyk, L. Montelius, H.J. Whitlow
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 173 (2001), 4, 447-454
    1293 Stability/instability of conductivity and work function changes of ITO thin films, UV-irradiated in air or vacuum - Measurements by the four-probe method and by Kelvin force microscopy
    J. Olivier, B. Servet, M. Vergnolle, M. Mosca, G. Garry
    Synthetic Metals, 122 (2001), 1, 87-89
    1681 Surface Photo Voltage Measurements for the Characterization of the CuGaSe2/ZnSe Interface Using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy
    S. Sadewasser, Th. Glatzel, M. Rusu, A. Jager-Waldau, and M.Ch. Lux-Steiner
    Proc. of the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (2001), p. 1155
    1292 Surface potential measurement on organic ultrathin film by Kelvin probe force microscopy using a piezoelectric cantilever
    K. Kobayashi, H. Yamada, K. Umeda, T. Horiuchi, S. Watanabe, T. Fujii, S. Hotta, K. Matsushige
    Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 72 (2001), 7, S97-S100
    1294 Surface potentials of patterned organosilane self-assembled monolayers acquired by Kelvin probe force microscopy and ab initio molecular calculation
    N. Saito, K. Hayashi, H. Sugimura, O. Takai, N. Nakagiri
    Chemical Physics Letters, 349 (2001), 3-4, 172-177
    1660 Surface potentials on Pd/GaAs contacts studied using scanning probe microscopy
    H.-Y. Nie and J. Masai
    Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 66 (1998), S1059-S1062
    1673 The surface potential of the Si nanostructure on a Si (1 1 1) 7x7 surface generated by contact of a cantilever tip
    T. Shiota and K. Nakayama
    Applied Surface Science, 202 (2002) 3-4, pp. 218-222
    1679 Work Function Imaging using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy
    S. Sadewasser, and Th. Glatzel
    Bulletin of the Microscopy Society of Canada, 30 (2002) 19
    2004 Nanopotentiometry: Local potential measurements in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors using atomic force microscopy
    T. Trenkler, P. De Wolf, W. Vandervorst, L. Hellemans
    J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B16 (1998) 1, 367-372
    2009 New aspects of nanopotentiometry for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors
    T. Trenkler, R. Stephenson, P. Jansen, W. Vandervorst, and L. Hellemans
    J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B18 (2000) 1, 586-594
    2032 Two-dimensional transverse cross-section nanopotentiometry of actively driven buried-heterostructure multiple-quantum-well lasers
    D. Ban, E. H. Sargent, St. J. Dixon-Warren, I. Calder, T. Grevatt, G. Knight, J. K. White
    J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B20 (2002) 6, 2401-2407
    2038 Direct imaging of the depletion region of an InP p-n junction under bias using scanning voltage microscopy
    D. Ban, E. H. Sargent, St. J. Dixon-Warren, I. Calder, A. J. SpringThorpe, R. Dworschak, G. Este, J. K. White
    Appl. Phys. Lett., 81 (2002) 26, 5057-5059
    2574 Field emission study of diamond-like carbon films with scanned-probe field-emission force microscopy
    Takahito Inoue, D. Frank Ogletree, and Miquel Salmeron
    Appl. Phys. Lett., 76 (2000) 20, 2961-2963
    2630 Computational investigation of the accuracy of constant-dC scanning capacitance microscopy for ultra-shallow doping profile characterization
    L. Ciampolini, M. Ciappa, P. Malberti, W. Fichtner
    Solid-State Electronics, 46 (2002) 3, 445-449
    2629 Theoretical problems of scanning capacitance microscopy
    A. Shik, H.E. Ruda
    Surface Science, 532-535 (2003) 1132-1135
    2628 Two-dimensional dopant profiling by scanning capacitance force microscopy
    K. Kimura, K. Kobayashi, H. Yamada, K. Matsushige
    Applied Surface Science, 210 (2003) 1-2, 93-98
    2627 Application of SCM for the microcharacterization of semiconductor devices
    G. Zimmermann, A. Born, B. Ebersberger, C. Boit
    Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 76 (2003) 6, 885-888
    2559 Quantitative Noncontact Electrostatic Force Imaging of Nanocrystal Polarizability
    Oksana Cherniavskaya, Liwei Chen, Vivian Weng, Leonid Yuditsky, and Louis E. Brus
    J. Phys. Chem. B, 107 (2003) 1525-1531
    2672 Electrostatic force microscopy: principles and some applications to semiconductors
    Paul Girard
    Nanotechnology, 12 (2001) 485-490
    2816 Scanning impedance microscopy of an active Schottky barrier diode
    Sergei V. Kalinin and Dawn A. Bonnell
    J. Appl. Phys., 91 (2002) 2, 832-839
    2804 Direct observation of lateral current spreading in ridge-waveguide lasers using scanning voltage microscopy
    D. Ban, E. H. Sargent, K. Hinzer, St. J. Dixon-Warren, I. Calder, A. J. SpringThorpe, and J. K. White
    Appl. Phys. Lett., 82 (2003) 23, 4166-4168
    2814 Local impedance imaging and spectroscopy of polycrystalline ZnO using contact atomic force microscopy
    Rui Shao, Sergei V. Kalinin, and Dawn A. Bonnell
    Appl. Phys. Lett., 82 (2003) 12, 1869-1871
    2809 Sub-5-nm-spatial resolution in scanning spreading resistance microscopy using full-diamond tips
    D. Alvarez, J. Hartwich, M. Fouchier, P. Eyben, and W. Vandervorst
    Appl. Phys. Lett., 82 (2003) 11, 1724-1726
    2810 Probing carriers in two-dimensional systems with high spatial resolution by scanning spreading resistance microscopy
    K. Maknys, O. Douheret, and S. Anand
    Appl. Phys. Lett., 83 (2003) 11, 2184-2186
    2811 Electrical characterization of InGaAs/InP quantum wells by scanning capacitance microscopy
    K. Maknys, O. Douheret, and S. Anand
    Appl. Phys. Lett., 83 (2003) 20, 4205-4207
    2812 Scanning spreading resistance microscopy of Aluminium implanted 4H-SiC
    J. Osterman, L. Abtin, U. Zimmerman, M.S. Janson, S. Anand, C. Hallin and A. Hallin
    Mat. Sci. Eng. B-Solid, 102 (2003) 1-3, 128-131
    2805 Scanning Voltage Microscopy on Buried Heterostructure Multiquantum-Well Lasers: Identification of a Diode Current Leakage Path
    D. Ban, E. H. Sargent, St. J. Dixon-Warren, G. Letal, K. Hinzer, J. K. White, G. Knight
    IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 40 (2004) 2, 118-122
    2806 Nanoscopic electric potential probing: influence of probe-sample interface on spatial resolution
    S. B. Kuntze, E. H. Sargent, St. J. Dixon-Warren, J. K. White, K. Hinzer, D. Ban
    Appl. Phys. Lett., 84 (2004) 4, 601-603
    2807 Scanning Voltage Microscopy on Active Semiconductor Lasers: The Impact of Doping Profile Near an Epitaxial Growth Interface on Series Resistance
    D. Ban, E. H. Sargent, St. J. Dixon-Warren, K. Hinzer, J. K. White, A. J. SpringThorpe
    IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 40 (2004) 6, 651-655
    2808 Scanning Differential Spreading Resistance Microscopy on Actively Driven Buried Heterostructure Multiquantum-Well Lasers
    D. Ban, E. H. Sargent, St. J. Dixon-Warren
    IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 40 (2004) 7, 865-870
    2813 Ionic and electronic impedance imaging using atomic force microscopy
    Ryan O'Hayre, Minhwan Lee, Fritz B. Prinz
    J. Appl. Phys., 95 (2004) 12, 8382-8392
    2815 Quantitative impedance measurement using atomic force microscopy
    Ryan O'Hayre, Gang Feng, William D. Nix, Fritz B. Prinz
    J. Appl. Phys., 96 (2004) 6, 3540-3549
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