• SPM Applications in Biology


    It is hard to imagine a more fundamental as well as more complicated biological object than a living cell. In a short period of time the applications of AFM have been extended to such a complex field of biology as science of the cell [357, 959, 960, 961].

    In this field Atomic Force Microscopy features not only high-resolution imaging of cellular structures below the optical limit, which is quite "natural" for this method, but also evaluation of the micromechanical properties of the cell and the ability to monitor cell dynamics and processes running in it even in real time. At present, no other microscopic techniques are able to provide directly both structural information of a biological sample and related functional information at such high spatial resolution [357]. Using AFM cells can be imaged directly requiring little or no sample pre-treatment and, what is quite importnat, in their most native physiological media such as aqueous solutions. Offering several advantages over conventional microscopic techniques AFM is successfully employed in combination with other methods such as electron microscopy, SNOM, PCT and others [981, 982, 983, 997, 998].

    Direct imaging of fixed or living cells and subcellular structures provides important information on the architecture of the membrane, organelles and cytoskeleton of cells. AFM offers a unique opportunity to image, localize and identify integral membrane proteins at the surface of living cells [962, 963, 964, 965, 966, 967]. Although staining or fluorescent labeling to mark the proteins of interest can not be avoided due to the indiscriminative nature of AFM probing relative to chemical composition and nature of the objects, further improvements and extensions promise this problem to be solved. For instance, using a method proposed in [999], the functionality of membrane proteins such as ion channels can be identified using the Patch Clamp Technique (PCT) [980] and the density of the protein distribution over the membrane patch can also be estimated. This combination of AFM and PCT allows for lateral resolution of cytoskeletal elements from the patches as low as 10 nm [981]. To observe membrane structural features such as ruffles, lamellipodia, microspikes and microvilli, cell fixation is used [968, 969]. Because the plasma membrane prevents from observing the intracellular structure the means of its careful removal were developed [970].

    Contact mode, commonly used in AFM, is not a very suitable mode for cell imaging since it affects the membrane in a destructive way. Therefore, tapping mode or intermittent contact AFM is preferable in such studies for high-resolution imaging of subcellular structures. The main problem that arises in this case is how to remove tje damping involved by the liquid environment and develop an appropriate contrast mechanism to improve quality [971, 972, 973, 974].

    Another major AFM application in cell studies is real-time monitoring of living cells dynamics, intercellular interactions and response to internal and external perturbing factors [357, 975]. Examples include the exploration of exocytosis of a virus from an infected cell in real time [976], platelets shape transformation upon activation [977], cultured pancreas cells secreting the starch-digesting enzyme amylase [978].

    The main problem in monitoring the dynamic behavior of the cell is minimizing the perturbation caused by the probe during the scanning process as well as maintaining stable environmental conditions for both temperature and pH value [357, 979]. Another technical challenge is achieving high temporal resolution since the time to acquire a full scan of a living cell often exceeds the characteristic alterations happening in it. Diminishing of undesirable cellular stimulation can be achieved by the implementation of the modified tapping mode technique in liquid or the development of a new technique in which much lower cantilever loading forces are required, and/or the design of novel cantilever probes which are biochemically and mechanically compatible with biological samples [357]. The simplest remedy to increase temporal resolution is, obviously, to speed up the scan rate, often though at the expense of spatial resolution [984, 985, 986, 987]. Therefore, existing AFM apparatus and techniques allow to monitor certain dynamic cellular processes, such as cell growth, exocytotic and endocytotic events, which are not very fast in time and requires less power in spatial resolution, and to study the cell morphology in real time in the presence of growth factors, hormones, and other biological reagents. With the development of high scan rate AFM it may be possible to use AFM to monitor the processes that occur at the cell membrane during an antibody binding, vesicle transfer, channel blocking or gating, etc., and to obtain information on the delivery of a specific drug with molecular resolution [357].

    Information about the micromechanical properties is quite important for cellular systems because it helps understanding cell architecture and its functions [975, 988, 989, 990, 991, 992, 993, 994]. Local elastic properties of a cell can be quantitatively derived from the force versus distance (F-S) curves obtained at fixed surface points using AFM. Cytosceleton is the main characteristic feature observed in AFM images and it is responsible for the mechanical properties of the cell. Cytosceleton generally defines the shape, activity and mobility of the cell. Data acquired from AFM measurements contains information about both topography and elasticity and these two types must be distinguished from each other. This can be done using the elasticity mapping technique. The accuracy of elasticity measurements depends upon a number of factors considered in [357]. Attention should be paid in the quantitative study of cell micromechanical properties [593, 988, 995].

    Please, send all comments and suggestions concerning these pages to info@mikromasch.com

    ID Reference list (newly come references are marked red)
    985 A fast and versatile scan unit for scanning probe microscopy
    Knebel D., Amrein M., Voigt K., Reichelt R.
    Scanning 19 (1997) 264??“268
    980 A look at membrane patches with a scanning force microscope
    Horber J.K.H., Mosbacker J., Haberle W., Ruppersberg J.P., Sakmann B.
    Biophys J 68 (1995), 1687??“1693
    981 A scanning force microscopy for simultaneous force and patch-clamp measurements on living cell tissues
    Langer M.G., Offner W., Wittmann H., Flosser H., Schaar H., Haberle W., Pralle A., Ruppersberg J.P., Horber J.K.H.
    Rev Sci Instrum 68 (1997), 2583??“2590
    975 AFM review study on pox viruses and living cells
    Ohnesorge F.M., Horber J.K.H., Haberle W., Czerny C.P., Smith D.P.E., Binning G.
    Biophys J 73 (1997), 2183??“2194
    979 An integrated approach to the study of living cells by atomic force microscopy
    Nagao E., Dvorak J.A.
    J Microsc 191 (1998), 8??“19
    959 Atomic force microscopy for high-resolution imaging in cell biology
    Hoh J.H., Hansma P.K.
    Trends Cell Biol 2 (1992), 208??“213
    357 Atomic force microscopy imaging of living cells: progress, problems and prospects
    Hong Xing You, Lei Yu.
    Methods in Cell Science, 21 (1999), 1, 1-17
    965 Atomic force microscopy of cholera toxin Boligomers bound to bilayers of biologically relevant lipids
    Mou J., Yang J., Shao Z.
    J Mol Biol 248 (1995), 507??“512
    968 Atomic force microscopy of renal cells: Limits and prospects
    Lesniewska E., Giocondi M-C., Vie V., Finot E., Goudonnet J.P., Le Grimellec C.
    Kidney Int 65 (1998), S42??“S48
    990 Atomic force microscopy: Influence of air drying and fixation on the morphology and viscoelasticity of cultured cells
    Weyn B., Kalle W., Kumar-Singh S., van Marck E., Tanke H., Jacob W.
    J Microsc 189 (1998), 172??“180
    961 Biological applications of atomic force microscopy
    Lal R., John S.A.
    Am. J. Physiol. 266 (1994), C1??“C21
    964 Cell-surface receptors and proteins on platelet membranes imaged by scanning force microscopy using immunogold contrast enhancement
    Eppell S.J., Simmons S.R., Albrecht R.M., Marchant R.E.
    Biophys J 68 (1995), 671??“680
    997 Combining optical and atomic force microscopy for life sciences research
    Vesenka J., Mosher C., Schaus S., Ambrosio L., Henderson E.
    Biotechniques 19 (1995), 240??“248
    973 Deformation, contact time, and phase-contrast in tapping mode scanning force microscopy
    Tamayo J., Garcia R.
    Langmuir 12 (1996), 4430??“4435
    991 Differences in elasticity of vinculin-deficient F9 cells measured by magnetometry and atomic force microscopy
    Goldmann W.H., Galneder R., Ludwig M., Xu W., Adamson E.D., Wang N., Ezzell R.M.
    Exp Cell Res 239 (1998), 235??“242
    994 Dynamic micromechanical properties of cultured rat atrial myocytes measured by atomic force microscopy
    Shroff S.G., Saner D.R., Lal R.
    Am J Physiol 269 (1995), C286??“C292
    977 Granular motion and membrane spreading during activation of human platelets imaged by atomic force microscopy
    Radmacher M., Gaub H.E.
    Biophys J 66 (1994), 1328??“1334
    999 Imaging excised apical plasma membrane patches of MDCK cells in physiological conditions with atomic force microscopy
    Larmer L., Schneider S.W., Danker T., Schwab A., Oberleithner H.
    Pflugers Arch 434 (1997), 254??“260
    960 Imaging of living cells by atomic force microscopy
    Henderson E.
    Prog Surf Sci 46 (1994), 39??“60
    987 Imaging ROMK1 inwardly rectifying ATP-sensitive K+ channel proteins using atomic force microscopy
    Henderson R.M., Schneider S., Li Q., Hornby D., White S.D.I., Oberleithner H.
    Proc Nat Aca Sci USA 93 (1996), 8756??“8760
    970 Imaging subcellular structures of rat mammary carcinoma cells by scanning force microscopy
    Pietrasanta L.I., Schaper A., Jovin T.M.
    J Cell Sci 107 (1994), 2427??“2437
    969 Imaging surface and submembranous structures with the atomic force microscope: A study on living cancer cells, fibroblasts and macrophages
    Braet F., Seynaeve C., de Zanger R., Wisse E.
    J Microsc 190 (1998), 328??“338
    982 Imaging the internal and external pore structure of membranes in fluid: Tapping mode scanning ion conductance microscopy
    Proksch R., Lal R., Hansma P.K., Morse D., Stucky G.
    Biophys J 71 (1996), 2155??“2157
    989 Investigating the cytoskeleton of chicken cardiocytes with the atomic force microscope
    Hofmann U.G., Rotsch C., Parak W.J., Radmacher M. J.
    Struct Biol 119 (1997), 84??“91
    974 Investigation of the image contrast of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy using protein-modified cantilever tips
    You H.X., Yu L.
    Biophys J 73 (1997), 3299??“3308
    966 Localization of amiloride-sensitive sodium channels in A6 cells by atomic force microscopy
    Smith P.R., Bradford A.L., Schneider S., Benos D.J., Geibel J.P.
    Am J Physiol 272 (1997), C1295??“C1298
    962 Localization of individual calcium channels at the release face of a presynaptic nerve terminal
    Haydon P.C., Henderson E., Stanley E.S.
    Neuron 13 (1994), 1275??“1280
    593 Measuring elasticity of biological materials by atomic force microscopy
    Vinckier A., Semenza G.
    FEBS Lett 430 (1998), 12??“16
    995 Measuring the elastic properties of biological samples with the AFM
    Radmacher M.
    IEEE Eng Med Biol 16 (1997), 47??“57
    993 Measuring the viscoelastic properties of human platelets with the atomic force microscope
    Radmacher M., Fritz M., Kacher C.M., Cleveland J.P., Hansma P.K.
    Biophys J 70 (1996), 556??“567
    988 Mechanical and morphological properties of living 3T6 cells probed via scanning force microscopy
    Ricci D., Tedesco M., Grattarola M.
    Microsc Res Tech 36 (1997), 165??“171
    998 Membrane deformation of living glial cells using atomic force microscopy
    Haydon P.G., Lartius R., Parpura V., Marchese-Ragona S.P.
    J Microsc 182 (1996), 114??“120
    986 Protein tracking and detection of protein motion using atomic force microscopy
    Thomson N.H., Fritz M., Radmacher M., Cleveland J.P., Schmidt C.F., Hansma P.K.
    Biophys J 70 (1996), 2421??“2431
    992 Relative microelastic mapping of living cells by atomic force microscopy
    A-Hassan E., Heinz W.F., Antonik M.D., D??™Costa N.P., Nageswaran S., Schoenenberger C.A., Hoh J.H.
    Biophys J 74 (1998), 1564??“1578
    984 Scan speed limit in atomic force microscopy
    Butt H.J., Siedle P., Seifert K., Fendler K., Seeger T., Bamberg E., Weisenhorn A.L., Goldie K., Engel A.
    J. Microsc 169 (1993), 75??“84
    983 Scanning ion conductance microscopy of living cells
    Korchev Y.E., Bashford C.L., Milovanovic M., Vodyanoy I., Lab M.J.
    Biophys J 73 (1997), 653??“658
    967 Structural changes in native membrane proteins monitored at subnanometer resolution with the atomic force microscopy: A review
    Müller D.J., Schoenenberger C.A., Schabert F., Engel A.
    J. Struct Biol 119 (1997), 149??“157
    976 Structure and activation dynamics of RBL-2H3 cells observed with scanning force microscopy
    Braunstein D., Spudich A.
    Biophys J 66 (1994), 1717??“1725
    972 Studies of vibrating atomic force microscope cantilevers in liquid
    Schaeffer T.E., Cleveland J.P., Ohnesorge F.M., Walters D.A., Hansma P.K.
    J Appl Phys 80 (1996), 3622??“3627
    978 Surface dynamics in living acinar cells imaged by atomic force microscopy: Identification of plasma membrane structures involved in exocytosis
    Schneider S.W., Sritharan K.C., Geibel J.P., Oberleithner H., Jena B.P.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94 (1997), 316??“321
    963 Topography of the Leydig cell mitochondrial peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor
    Papadopoulos V., Boujrad N., Ikonomovic M.D., Ferrara P., Vidic B.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 104 (1994), R5??“R9
    971 Viscoelasticity of living cells allows high resolution imaging by tapping mode atomic force microscopy
    Putman C.A.J., van der Werf K.O., de Grooth B.G., van Hulst N.F., Greve J.
    Biophys J 67 (1994), 1749??“1753
    419 Atomic force microscopy to study direct neurite-mast cell (RBL) communication in vitro
    H. Ohshiro, R. Suzuki, T. Furuno, M. Nakanishi
    Immunology Letters, 74 (2000), 3, 211 - 214
    420 Atomic force microscopy to study the effects of ITIM-bearing FcgRIIB on the activation of RBL-2H3 cells
    R. Nakamura, M. Nakanishi
    Immunology Letters, 72 (2000), 3, 167 - 170
    470 Detection of the absorption of glucose molecules by living cells using atomic force microscopy
    R. de Souza Pereira
    FEBS Letters, 475 (2000), 1, 43-46
    474 Differences in F9 and 5.51 cell elasticity determined by cell poking and atomic force microscopy
    R. Galneder, R.M. Ezzell, W.H. Goldmann, A. Kromm, M. Ludwig
    FEBS Letters, 424 (1998), 3, 139-142
    476 Direct observation of oxidative stress on the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with atomic force microscopy
    Ricardo de Souza Pereira, John Geibel
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 201 (1999), 1/2, 17-24
    495 Estimation for the elasticity of vascular endothelial cells on the basis of atomic force microscopy and Young's modulus of gelatin gels
    H. Sato, M. Katano, T. Takigawa, T. Masuda
    Polymer Bulletin, 47 (2001), 3-4, 375-381
    513 Glial cells with differential neurite growth-modulating properties probed by atomic force microscopy
    G. Weissmuller, J. Garcia-Abreu, P. Mascarello Bisch, V. Moura Neto, L.A. Cavalcante
    Neuroscience Research, 38 (2000), 2, 217 - 220
    588 Measurement of morphological change in endothelial cells by osmotic pressure alteration under atomic force microscopy
    Y. Kawasaki, S. Shirabe, K. Aizawa, M. Kanazawa, Y. Notoya, T. Hayashi
    Atherosclerosis, 134 (1997), 1-2, 243
    622 Morphological changes in living cell cultures following a-particle irradiation studied by optical and atomic force microscopy
    D. Selmeczi, B. Szabo, L. Sajo-Bohus, N. Rozlosnik
    Radiation Measurements, 34 (2001), 1-6, 549-553
    773 Three-dimensional characterization of interior structures of exocytotic apertures of nerve cells using atomic force microscopy
    T. Tojima, Y. Yamane, H. Takagi, T. Takeshita, T. Sugiyama, H. Haga, K. Kawabata, T. Ushiki, K. Abe, T. Yoshioka, E. Ito
    Neuroscience, 101 (2000), 2, 471-481
    795 Binding strength between cell adhesion proteoglycans measured by atomic force microscopy
    Dammer U., Popescu O., Wagner P., Anselmetti D., Güntherodt H-J. and Misevic G.
    Science 267 (1995), 1173-1175
    862 Investigation of the swelling of human skin cells in liquid media by tapping mode scanning force microscopy
    T. Richter, J.H. Muller, U.D. Schwarz, R. Wepf, R. Wiesendanger
    Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 72 (2001), 7, S125-S128
    871 Local elastic properties of cells studied by SFM
    M. Lekka, Z. Stachura, J. Lekki, P. Golonka, A.Z. Hrynkiewicz, M. Marszalek, B. Cleff
    Applied Surface Science, 141 (1999), 3-4, 345-349
    944 The effect of chitosan on stiffness and glycolytic activity of human bladder cells
    M. Lekka, P. Laidler, J. Ignacak, M. Labedz, J. Lekki, H. Struszczyk, Z. Stachura, A.Z. Hrynkiewicz
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)/Molecular Cell Research, 1540 (2001), 2, 127-136
    1044 Preparation of basal cell membranes for scanning probe microscopy
    G. Semenza, P. Kernen, J. Biber, H. Murer, A. Vinckier, D. Zeisel, U. Ziegler, P. Groscurth
    FEBS Letters, 436 (1998), 2, 179-184
    1068 Studying the surface of soft materials (live cells) at high resolution by scanning probe microscopy: Challenges faced
    J.A. DeRose, J.-P. Revel
    Thin Solid Films, 331 (1998), 1-2, 194-202
    1080 Atomic force microscopy combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy: a new look at cells
    C.A.J. Putman, A.M. van Leeuwen, B.G. de Grooth, K. Radosevic, K.O. Van der Werf, N.F. van Hulst and J. Greve,
    Bioimaging 1 (1993) 70
    1531 In situ investigation of single living cells infected by viruses
    Haberle W., Horber J.K.H., Ohnesorge F.M., Smith D.P.E., Binnig G.
    Ultramicroscopy 42-44 (1992) 1161-1167
    1535 Kinetics and mechanics of cell adhesion
    Zhu C.
    J Biomech 33 (2000) pp. 23-33.
    1329 New technologies in scanning probe microscopy for studying molecular interactions in cells
    Petri P. Lehenkari, Guillaume T. Charras, Stephen A. Nesbitt and Mike A. Horton
    Exp. Rev. Mol. Med. (2000) 8 March, http://www-ermm.cbcu.cam.ac.uk/00001575h.htm
    1398 Use of AFM for imaging and measurement of the mechanical properties of light-convertible organelles in plants
    Takafumi Yamada, Hideo Arakawa, Takaharu Okajima, Takayoshi Shimada and Atsushi Ikai
    Ultramicroscopy, Vol. 91 (2002) 1-4, pp. 261-268
    1399 Combination of AFM with an objective-type total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM) for nanomanipulation of single cells
    Shuhei Nishida, Yutaka Funabashi and Atsushi Ikai
    Ultramicroscopy, Vol. 91 (2002) 1-4, pp. 269-274
    1664 Surface morphological characterization of yeast cells by scanning force microscopy
    A. Mendez-Vilas, A. M. Gallardo, Ciro Perez-Giraldo, M. L. Gonzalez-Martin, M. J. Nuevo
    Surface and Interface Analysis, 31 (2001) 11, 1027-1030
    1665 Comparative study of the hydrophobicity of Candida parapsilosis 294 through macroscopic and microscopic analysis
    A. M. Gallardo Moreno, A.Mendez-Vilas, M.L.Gonzalez-Martin, M.J.Nuevo, J.M.Bruque, E.Gardu and C.Perez Giraldo
    Langmuir 18 (2002), 3639-3644
    1700 Pushing, pulling, dragging, and vibrating renal epithelia by using atomic force microscopy
    Robert M. Henderson and Hans Oberleithner
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol, 278 (2000) 689 - 701
    1706 Atomic force and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy for the study of force transmission in endothelial cells
    Anshu Bagga Mathur, George A. Truskey, and W. Monty Reichert
    Biophys. J., 78 (2000) 1725 - 1735
    1711 Determination of cellular strains by combined atomic force microscopy and finite element modeling
    Guillaume T. Charras and Mike A. Horton
    Biophys. J., 83 (2002) 858 - 879
    1720 Drug-induced changes of cytoskeletal structure and mechanics in fibroblasts: an atomic force microscopy study
    Christian Rotsch and Manfred Radmacher
    Biophys. J., 78 (2000) 520 - 535
    1723 The assembly of amyloidogenic yeast sup35 as assessed by scanning (atomic) force microscopy: an analogy to linear colloidal aggregation?
    Shaohua Xu, Brooke Bevis, and Morton F. Arnsdorf
    Biophys. J., 81 (2001) 446 - 454
    1726 Direct characterization of the physicochemical properties of fungal spores using functionalized AFM probes
    Yves F. Dufrene
    Biophys. J., 78 (2000) 3286 - 3291
    1729 Single cell mechanotransduction and its modulation analyzed by atomic force microscope indentation
    Guillaume T. Charras and Mike A. Horton
    Biophys. J., 82 (2002) 2970 - 2981
    1731 Morphology and transverse stiffness of Drosophila myofibrils measured by atomic force microscopy
    Lori R. Nyland and David W. Maughan
    Biophys. J., 78 (2000) 1490 - 1497
    1734 Direct probing by atomic force microscopy of the cell surface softness of a fibrillated and nonfibrillated oral streptococcal strain
    Henny C. van der Mei, Henk J. Busscher, Rolf Bos, Joop de Vries, Christophe J. P. Boonaert, and Yves F. Dufrene
    Biophys. J., 78 (2000) 2668 - 2674
    1747 Structure and dynamics of the fusion pores in live GH-secreting cells revealed using atomic force microscopy
    Sang-Joon Cho, Ksenija Jeftinija, Aleksandra Glavaski, Srdija Jeftinija, Bhanu P. Jena, and Lloyd L. Anderson
    Endocrinology 143 (2002) 1144
    1752 An Atomic force microscopy investigation of bioadhesive polymer adsorption onto human buccal cells
    Dharmendra Patel, James R. Smith, Andrew W. Smith, Nigel Grist, Paul Barnett, John D. Smart
    Int. J. Pharm. 200 (2000) 271-277
    1753 The use of atomic force microscopy for the observation of corneal epithelium surface
    Miltiadis K. Tsilimbaris, Eric Lesniewska, Stella Lydataki, Christian Le Grimellec, Jean P. Goudonnet, and Ioannis G. Pallikaris
    Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 41 (2000) 680 - 686
    1756 Atomic force microscopy reveals two conformations of the 20 S proteasome from fission yeast
    Pawel A. Osmulski and Maria Gaczynska
    J. Biol. Chem, 275 (2000) 13171 - 13174
    1760 A comparative atomic force microscopy study on living skin fibroblasts and liver endothelial cells
    Filip Braet, Ronald de Zanger, Carine Seynaeve, Marijke Baekeland, and Eddie Wisse
    J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo), 50 (2001) 283 - 290
    1769 Structural analysis of red blood cell membrane with an atomic force microscope
    S. Yamashina and O. Katsumata
    J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo), 49 (2000) 445 - 451
    1770 The cell biological application of carbon nanotube probes for atomic force microscopy: comparative studies of malaria-infected erythrocytes
    Eriko Nagao, Hirohide Nishijima, Seiji Akita, Yoshikazu Nakayama, and James A. Dvorak
    J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo), 49 (2000) 453 - 458
    1771 Time-lapse viscoelastic imaging of living fibroblasts using force modulation mode in AFM
    Hisashi Haga, Masafumi Nagayama, Kazushige Kawabata, Etsuro Ito, Tatsuo Ushiki, and Takashi Sambongi
    J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo), 49 (2000) 473 - 481
    1772 Observations of xenon gas-treated barley cells in solution by atomic force microscopy
    Tomoyuki Yoshino, Itaru Sotome, Toshio Ohtani, Seiichiro Isobe, Sei-ichi Oshita, and Takaaki Maekawa
    J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo), 49 (2000) 483 - 486
    1777 Affinity imaging of red blood cells using an atomic force microscope
    Michel Grandbois, Wolfgang Dettmann, Martin Benoit, and Hermann E. Gaub
    J. Histochem. Cytochem., 48 (2000) 719 - 724
    1790 Charting and unzipping the surface-layer of Corynebacterium glutamicum with the atomic force microscope
    Simon Scheuring, Henning Stahlberg, Mohamed Chami, Christine Houssin, Jean-Louis Rigaud and Andreas Engel
    Molecular Microbiology, 44 (2002), 3, pp. 675-684
    1805 Combining constitutive materials modeling with atomic force microscopy to understand the mechanical properties of living cells
    Mike McElfresh, Eveline Baesu, Rod Balhorn, James Belak, Michael J. Allen, and Robert E. Rudd
    PNAS, 99 (2002) 6493 - 6497
    1928 Atomic force microscopy in histology and cytology
    T. Ushiki, J. Hitomi, S. Ogura, T. Umemoto, M. Shigeno
    Arch. Histol. Cytol., 59 (1996) 5, 421-431
    2549 Visualization of plant cell walls by atomic force microscopy
    A. R. Kirby, A. P. Gunning, K. W. Waldron, V. J. Morris, A. Ng
    Biophys. J., 70 (1996) 3, 1138-1143
    2277 Membrane knobs of unfixed Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes: new findings as revealed by atomic force microscopy and surface potential spectroscopy
    M. Aikawa, K. Kamanura, S. Shiraishi, Y. Matsumoto, H. Arwati, M. Torii, Y. Ito, T. Takeuchi, B. Tandler
    Exp. Parasitol., 84 (1996) 3, 339-343
    2543 Viscoelasticity in wild-type and vinculin-deficient (5.51) mouse F9 embryonic carcinoma cells examined by atomic force microscopy and rheology
    W. H. Goldmann, R. M. Ezzell
    Exp. Cell. Res., 226 (1996) 1, 234-237
    2041 Comparative scanning, transmission and atomic force microscopy of the microtubular cytoskeleton in fenestrated liver endothelial cells
    F. Braet, R. De Zanger, W. Kalle, A. Raap, H. Tanke, E. Wisse
    Scanning Microsc. Suppl., 10 (1996) 225-235 (discussion 235-236)
    1880 Aldosterone activates the nuclear pore transporter in cultured kidney cells imaged with atomic force microscopy
    G. Folprecht, S. Schneider, H. Oberleithner
    Pflugers. Arch., 432 (1996) 5, 831-838
    2040 Comparative atomic force and scanning electron microscopy: an investigation on fenestrated endothelial cells in vitro
    F. Braet, W. H. Kalle, R. B. De Zanger, B. G. De Grooth, A. K. Raap, H. J. Tanke, E. Wisse
    J. Microsc., 181 (1996) 1, 10-17
    2390 Scanning force microscopy reveals ellipsoid shape of chicken erythrocyte nucleosomes
    W. Fritzsche, E. Henderson
    Biophys. J., 71 (1996) 4, 2222-2226
    1940 Atomic force microscopy of Escherichia coli FoF1-ATPase in reconstituted membranes
    K. Takeyasu, H. Omote, S. Nettikadan, F. Tokumasu, A. Iwamoto-Kihara, M. Futai
    Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 834 (1997) 149-152
    1847 A non-invasive method for the tight anchoring of cells for scanning force microscopy
    K. Schilcher, P. Hinterdorfer, H. J. Gruber, H. Schindler
    Cell. Biol. Int., 21 (1997) 11, 769-78
    1950 Atomic force microscopy of plant cell walls, plant cell wall polysaccharides and gels
    V. J. Morris, A. P. Gunning, A. R. Kirby, A. Round, K. Waldron, A. Ng
    Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 21 (1997) 1-2, 61-66
    2003 Cellular and molecular mechanics by atomic force microscopy: capturing the exocytotic fusion pore in vivo?
    J. M. Fernandez
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94 (1997) 1, 9-10
    2263 Mapping cell wall polysaccharides of living microbial cells using atomic force microscopy
    M. Gad, A. Itoh, A. Ikai
    Cell. Biol. Int., 21 (1997) 11, 697-706
    2002 Cell viability and probe-cell membrane interactions of XR1 glial cells imaged by atomic force microscopy
    S. S. Schaus, E. R. Henderson
    Biophys. J., 73 (1997) 3, 1205-1214
    2413 Simultaneous imaging of the surface and the submembraneous cytoskeleton in living cells by tapping mode atomic force microscopy
    C. Le Grimellec, E. Lesniewska, M. C. Giocondi, E. Finot, J. P. Goudonnet
    C. R. Acad. Sci. III, 320 (1997) 8, 637-643
    2117 Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of cultured epithelial tumour cells with scanning electron microscopy
    E. Fernandez-Segura, F. J. Canizares, M. A. Cubero, F. Revelles, A. Campos
    Cell. Biol. Int., 21 (1997) 10, 665-669
    1962 Atomic force microscopy studies of living cells: visualization of motility, division, aggregation, transformation, and apoptosis
    Y. G. Kuznetsov, A. J. Malkin, A. McPherson
    J. Struct. Biol., 120 (1997) 2, 180-191
    2100 Drying cells for SEM, AFM and TEM by hexamethyldisilazane: a study on hepatic endothelial cells
    F. Braet, R. De Zanger, E. Wisse
    J. Microsc., 186 (1997) 1, 84-87
    1955 Atomic force microscopy on living cells: aldosterone-induced localized cell swelling
    S. W. Schneider, P. Pagel, J. Storck, Y. Yano, B. E. Sumpio, J. P. Geibel, H. Oberleithner
    Kidney Blood Press Res., 21 (1998) 2-4, 256-258
    2272 Mechanical properties of L929 cells measured by atomic force microscopy: effects of anticytoskeletal drugs and membrane crosslinking
    H. W. Wu, T. Kuhn, V. T. Moy
    Scanning, 20 (1998) 5, 389-397
    2241 Kinetic analysis of the mitotic cycle of living vertebrate cells by atomic force microscopy
    J. A. Dvorak, E. Nagao
    Exp. Cell. Res., 242 (1998) 1, 69-74
    2110 Elastic properties of living fibroblasts as imaged using force modulation mode in atomic force microscopy
    S. Sasaki, M. Morimoto, H. Haga, K. Kawabata, E. Ito, T. Ushiki, K. Abe, T. Sambongi
    Arch. Histol. Cytol., 61 (1998) 1, 57-63
    1976 Atomic force microscopy: application to investigation of Escherichia coli morphology before and after exposure to cefodizime
    P. C. Braga, D. Ricci
    Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 42 (1998) 1, 18-22
    2189 Imaging of the surface of living cells by low-force contact-mode atomic force microscopy
    C. Le Grimellec, E. Lesniewska, M. C. Giocondi, E. Finot, V. Vie, J. P. Goudonnet
    Biophys. J., 75 (1998) 2, 695-703
    2440 Structure of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton as observed by atomic force microscopy
    M. Takeuchi, H. Miyamoto, Y. Sako, H. Komizu, A. Kusumi
    Biophys. J., 74 (1998) 5, 2171-2183
    1927 Atomic force microscopy in effusion cytology
    B. Ross, H. Motherby, F. Saurenbach, J. Frohn, M. Kube, A. Bocking
    Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol., 20 (1998) 2, 97-104
    2112 Elasticity of normal and cancerous human bladder cells studied by scanning force microscopy
    M. Lekka, P. Laidler, D. Gil, J. Lekki, Z. Stachura, A. Z. Hrynkiewicz
    European Biophysics Journal, 28 (1999) 4, 312-316
    1971 Atomic force microscopy to study the degranulation in rat peritoneal mast cells after activation
    R. Nakamura, M. Nakanishi
    Immunology Letters, 69 (1999) 3, 307-310
    2001 Cell adhesion force microscopy
    G. Sagvolden, I. Giaever, E. O. Pettersen, J. Feder
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 96 (1999) 2, 471-476
    2338 Phase imaging by atomic force microscopy: analysis of living homoiothermic vertebrate cells
    E. Nagao, J. A. Dvorak
    Biophys. J., 76 (1999) 6, 3289-3297
    2051 Continuous detection of extracellular ATP on living cells by using atomic force microscopy
    S. W. Schneider, M. E. Egan, B. P. Jena, W. B. Guggino, H. Oberleithner, J. P. Geibel
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 96 (1999) 21, 12180-12185
    2185 Imaging of living cultured cells of an epithelial nature by atomic force microscopy
    T. Ushiki, J. Hitomi, T. Umemoto, S. Yamamoto, H. Kanazawa, M. Shigeno
    Arch. Histol. Cytol., 62 (1999) 1, 47-55
    2403 Selective cleaning of the cell debris in human chromosome preparations studied by scanning force microscopy
    J. Tamayo, M. Miles, A. Thein, P. Soothill
    J. Struct. Biol., 128 (1999) 2, 200-210
    2518 Topography of cell traces studied by atomic force microscopy
    H. Zimmermann, R. Hagedorn, E. Richter, G. Fuhr
    European Biophysics Journal, 28 (1999) 6, 516-525
    2108 Effect of streptolysin O on the microelasticity of human platelets analyzed by atomic force microscopy
    M. Walch, U. Ziegler, P. Groscurth
    Ultramicroscopy, 82 (2000) 1-4, 259-267
    1980 Bacterial turgor pressure can be measured by atomic force microscopy
    M. Arnoldi, M. Fritz, E. Bauerlein, M. Radmacher, E. Sackmann, A. Boulbitch
    Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics, 62 (2000) 1/B, 1034-1044
    2000 Celery (Apium graveolens L.) parenchyma cell walls examined by atomic force microscopy: effect of dehydration on cellulose microfibrils
    J. C. Thimm, D. J. Burritt, W. A. Ducker, L. D. Melton
    Planta, 212 (2000) 1, 25-32
    1951 Atomic force microscopy of the cell nucleus
    L. F. Jimenez-Garcia, R. Fragoso-Soriano
    J. Struct. Biol., 129 (2000) 2-3, 218-222
    2343 Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes: qualitative and quantitative analyses of parasite-induced knobs by atomic force microscopy
    E. Nagao, O. Kaneko, J. A. Dvorak
    J. Struct. Biol., 130 (2000) 1, 34-44
    1923 Atomic force microscopy imaging of living cells: a preliminary study of the disruptive effect of the cantilever tip on cell morphology
    H. X. You, J. M. Lau, S. Zhang, L. Yu
    Ultramicroscopy, 82 (2000) 1-4, 297-305
    2111 Elasticity mapping of living fibroblasts by AFM and immunofluorescence observation of the cytoskeleton
    H. Haga, S. Sasaki, K. Kawabata, E. Ito, T. Ushiki, T. Sambongi
    Ultramicroscopy, 82 (2000) 1-4, 253-258
    2275 Mechanical stimulation of individual stereocilia of living cochlear hair cells by atomic force microscopy
    M. G. Langer, A. Koitschev, H. Haase, U. Rexhausen, J. K. Horber, J. P. Ruppersberg
    Ultramicroscopy, 82 (2000) 1-4, 269-278
    2341 Plasma membrane plasticity of Xenopus laevis oocyte imaged with atomic force microscopy
    H. Schillers, T. Danker, H. J. Schnittler, F. Lang, H. Oberleithner
    Cell. Physiol. Biochem., 10 (2000) 1-2, 99-107
    2472 Tapping-mode atomic force microscopy on intact cells: optimal adjustment of tapping conditions by using the deflection signal
    V. Vie, M. C. Giocondi, E. Lesniewska, E. Finot, J. P. Goudonnet, C. Le Grimellec
    Ultramicroscopy, 82 (2000) 1-4, 279-288
    1842 Volume dynamics in migrating epithelial cells measured with atomic force microscopy
    S. W. Schneider, P. Pagel, C. Rotsch, T. Danker, H. Oberleithner, M. Radmacher, A. Schwab
    Pflugers. Arch., 439 (2000) 3, 297-303
    2251 Local mechanical properties measured by atomic force microscopy for cultured bovine endothelial cells exposed to shear stress
    M. Sato, K. Nagayama, N. Kataoka, M. Sasaki, K. Hane
    J. Biomech., 33 (2000) 1, 127-135
    2292 Molecular basis of cell adhesion to polymers characterized AFM
    T. Boland, Y. Dufrene, B. Barger, G. Lee
    Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng., 28 (2000) 1-2, 195-196
    1861 Adapting atomic force microscopy for cell biology
    P. P. Lehenkari, G. T. Charras, A. Nykanen, M. A. Horton
    Ultramicroscopy, 82 (2000) 1-4, 289-295
    2558 Volume dynamics in migrating epithelial cells measured with atomic force microscopy
    S. W. Schneider, P. Pagel, C. Rotsch, T. Danker, H. Oberleithner, M. Radmacher, A. Schwab
    Pflugers. Arch., 439 (2000) 3, 297-303
    1913 Atomic force microscopy can be used to mechanically stimulate osteoblasts and evaluate cellular strain distributions
    G. T. Charras, P. P. Lehenkari, M. A. Horton
    Ultramicroscopy, 86 (2001) 1-2, 85-95
    2359 Quantification of red blood cells using atomic force microscopy
    M. O'Reilly, L. McDonnell, J. O'Mullane
    Ultramicroscopy, 86 (2001) 1-2, 107-112
    1952 Atomic force microscopy of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton
    A. H. Swihart, J. M. Mikrut, J. B. Ketterson, R. C. Macdonald
    J. Microsc., 204 (2001) 3, 212-225
    1895 Application of atomic force microscopy to microbial surfaces: from reconstituted cell surface layers to living cells
    Y. F. Dufrene
    Micron, 32 (2001) 2, 153-165
    2351 Probing molecular interactions and mechanical properties of microbial cell surfaces by atomic force microscopy
    Y. F. Dufrene, C. J. P. Boonaert, H. C. van der Mei, H. J. Busscher, P. G. Rouxhet
    Ultramicroscopy, 86 (2001) 1-2, 113-120
    1899 Artificially induced unusual shape of erythrocytes: an atomic force microscopy study
    M. Girasole, A. Cricenti, R. Generosi, A. Congiu-Castellano, G. Boumis, G. Amiconi
    J. Microsc., 204 (2001) 1, 46-52
    2382 Scanning force microscopy observation of tumor cells treated with hematoporphyrin IX derivatives
    R. Bischoff, G. Bischoff, S. Hoffmann
    Ann. Biomed. Eng., 29 (2001) 12, 1092-1099
    2166 High-Q dynamic force microscopy in liquid and its application to living cells
    J. Tamayo, A. D. Humphris, R. J. Owen, M. J. Miles
    Biophys. J., 81 (2001) 1, 526-537
    1966 Atomic Force Microscopy Study of the Adhesion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    W. R. Bowen, R. W. Lovitt, C. J. Wright
    J. Colloid. Interface. Sci., 237 (2001) 1, 54-61
    1993 Blood cell adhesion on sensor materials studied by light, scanning electron, and atomic-force microscopy
    G. Hildebrand, S. Kunze, M. Driver
    Ann. Biomed. Eng., 29 (2001) 12, 1100-1105
    2252 Local mechanical properties of guinea pig outer hair cells measured by atomic force microscopy
    M. Sugawara, Y. Ishida, H. Wada
    Hear Res., 174 (2002) 1-2, 222-229
    1942 Atomic force microscopy of height fluctuations of fibroblast cells
    B. Szabo, D. Selmeczi, Z. Kornyei, E. Madarasz, N. Rozlosnik
    Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Nonlin. Soft. Matter. Phys., 65 (2002) 4/1, 41910
    2348 Potassium-selective atomic force microscopy on ion-releasing substrates and living cells
    P. Schar-Zammaretti, U. Ziegler, I. Forster, P. Groscurth, U. E. Spichiger-Keller
    Anal. Chem., 74 (2002) 16, 4269-4274
    2243 Lamellar subcomponents of the cuticular cell membrane complex of mammalian keratin fibres show friction and hardness contrast by AFM
    J. R. Smith, J. A. Swift
    J. Microsc., 206 (2002) 3, 182-193
    2478 The biophysics of sensory cells of the inner ear examined by atomic force microscopy and patch clamp
    M. G. Langer, A. Koitschev
    Methods Cell Biol., 68 (2002) 141-169
    2226 Investigating live and fixed epithelial and fibroblast cells by atomic force microscopy
    K. Sinniah, J. Paauw, J. Ubels
    Curr. Eye. Res., 24 (2002) 3, 188-195
    2169 High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of the lateral plasma membrane of cochlear outer hair cells by atomic force microscopy
    C. Le Grimellec, M. C. Giocondi, M. Lenoir, M. Vater, G. Sposito, R. Pujol
    J. Comp. Neurol., 451 (2002) 1, 62-69
    2132 Experimental and numerical analyses of local mechanical properties measured by atomic force microscopy for sheared endothelial cells
    T. Ohashi, Y. Ishii, Y. Ishikawa, T. Matsumoto, M. Sato
    Biomed. Mater. Eng., 12 (2002) 3, 319-327
    2017 Characterization of the adhesive mucilages secreted by live diatom cells using atomic force microscopy
    M. J. Higgins, S. A. Crawford, P. Mulvaney, R. Wetherbee
    Protist, 153 (2002) 1, 25-38