Theory and Practice of SPM

This section comprises references to articles containing information on theoretical problems and fundamentals of Scanning Probe Microscopy issued mainly since 1996. Also, plenty of references to papers devoted to simulation and modeling experiments, as well as enhancements, improvements and developments of contemporary SPM methods and corresponding techniques are listed including those describing technical innovations and technological solutions.

We purposely do not engage in reviewing existent theories and models of SPM since such comprehensive and, on the other hand, highly specialized (in respect to every SPM method or technique) survey inevitably would inflate into a little book and should be performed by a group of persons whose experience in this field has been accumulated during the mature part of SPM history.

Most of the references to articles devoted to conceptual problems related to biology, AFM probes and AFM cantilevers are considered mainly in the appropriate sections of our Library and, as a rule, are not reflected here.

An attempt to classify different SPM methods and techniques probably has been undertaken by Friedbacher and Fuchs [1261], though some relatively well established techniques such as Conductive AFM (or Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscopy, SSRM) are not mentioned in this paper.


ID Reference list (newly come references are marked red)
985 A fast and versatile scan unit for scanning probe microscopy.
Knebel D., Amrein M., Voigt K., Reichelt R.
Scanning 19 (1997) 264-268.
10 A mechanical approach to the dissipation process in NC-AFM: experiments, model and simulation
G. Couturier, J.P. Aime, J. Salardenne, R. Boisgard, A. Gourdon, S. Gauthier
Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 72 (2001), 7, S47-S50
801 A method to improve the quantitative analysis of SFM images at the nanoscale
B.A. Todd, S.J. Eppell
Surface Science, 491 (2001), 3, 473-483
802 A metrological scanning force microscope
X. Y., S.T. Smith, P.D. Atherton
Precision Engineering, 19 (1996), 1, 46-55
803 A new approach to pH of point of zero charge measurement: crystal-face specificity by scanning force microscopy (SFM) - A new approach to the measurement of adsorption isotherms at the solid-liquid interface
G. Jordan, C.M. Eggleston
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62 (1998), 11, 1919-1923
270 A tower-shaped prototypic molecule designed as an atomically sharp tip for AFM applications
A.V. Rukavishnikov, M.D. Lee, A. Phadke, D.H. LaMunyo, P.A. Petukhov, J.F. Keana
Tetrahedron Letters, 40 (1999), 35, 6353-6356
794 Adhesion forces between individual ligand-receptor pairs
Florin E-L., Moy V.T. and Gaub E.H.
Science 264 (1994), 415-417
282 AFM for the imaging of large and steep submicroscopic features, artifacts and scraping with asymmetric cantilever tips
G. Kaupp, J. Schmeyers, U. Pogodda, M. Haak, T. Marquardt, M. Plagmann
Thin Solid Films, 264 (1995), 2, 205-211
213 AFM imaging with an xy-micropositioner with integrated tip
P.-F. Indermuhle, V.P. Jaecklin, J. Brugger, C. Linder, N.F. De Rooij, M. Binggeli
Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 47 (1995), 1-3, 562-565
194 AFM observations and simulations of jarosite growth at the molecular scale: probing the basis for the incorporation of foreign ions into jarosite as a storage mineral
U. Becker, B. Gasharova
Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 28 (2001), 8, 545-556
1645 Algorithms for scanned probe microscope image simulation, surface reconstruction, and tip estimation
J. S. Villarrubia
J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, (1997), 4, 425-454
307 Ambient atomic force microscopy images of stilbite and their interpretation by molecular simulations
M. Komiyama, A. Miyamoto, Y. Oumi, M. Kubo, K. Tsujimichi
Applied Surface Science, 121-122 (1997), 543-547
308 Amplitude, deformation and phase shift in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy: a numerical study for compliant materials
A. San Paulo, R. Garca
Surface Science, 471 (2001), 1-3, 71-79
320 AN02/DNP-hapten unbinding forces studied by molecular dynamics atomic force microscopy simulations
B. Heymann, H. Grubmuller
Chemical Physics Letters, 303 (1999), 1-2, 1-9
323 Analytical evaluation of tapping mode atomic force microscopy for chemical imaging of surfaces
B. Basnar, G. Friedbacher, H. Brunner, T. Vallant, U. Mayer, H. Hoffmann
Applied Surface Science, 171 (2001), 3-4, 213-225
1008 Application of neural networks to a scanning probe microscopy system
L. Hadjiiski, R. Linnemann, M. Stopka, E. Oesterschulze, I. Rangelow, R. Kassing
Thin Solid Films, 264 (1995), 2, 291-297
812 Atomic and chemical resolution in scanning force microscopy on ionic surfaces
A.L. Shluger, A.I. Livshits
Applied Surface Science, 141 (1999), 3-4, 274-286
1638 Atomic-force microscopy probe tip visualization and improvement of images using a simple deconvolution procedure
P. Markiewicz and M. C. Goh
Langmuir 10 (1994), 5
435 Atomistic simulations of fluid structure and solvation forces in atomic force microscopy
D.L. Patrick, R.M. Lynden-Bell
Surface Science, 380 (1997), 2-3, 224-244
1011 Automated detection of particles, clusters and islands in scanning probe microscopy images
M.J.J. Jak, C. Konstapel, A. van Kreuningen, J. Verhoeven, R. van Gastel, J.W.M. Frenken
Surface Science, 494 (2001), 2, 43-52
814 Background correction in scanning probe microscope recordings of macromolecules
J.P.P. Starink, T.M. Jovin
Surface Science, 359 (1996), 1-3, 291-305
437 Bias dependence of Si(111)7x7 images observed by noncontact atomic force microscopy
T. Arai, M. Tomitori
Applied Surface Science, 157 (2000), 4, 207-211
817 Bridge configuration of piezoresistive devices for scanning force microscopes
O. Ohlsson, J. Schelten, R. Jumpertz, F. Saurenbach
Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 70 (1998), 1-2, 88-91
1104 Calculation of playback signals from MFM images using transfer functions
S.J.L. Vellekoop, J.J. Miles, J.C. Lodder, L. Abelmann, S. Porthun
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 193 (1999), 1-3, 474-478
438 Calculation of the optimal imaging parameters for frequency modulation atomic force microscopy
S. Hembacher, H. Bielefeldt, F.J. Giessibl, J. Mannhart
Applied Surface Science, 140 (1999), 3-4, 352-357
1012 Calibration of transfer standards for SPM
L. Koenders, G.-S. Peng, Gao-Feng
Microelectronic Engineering, 41-42 (1998), 615-618
820 Characterization of an integrated force sensor based on a MOS transistor for applications in scanning force microscopy
N.F. De Rooij, J. Brugger, A. Tonin, P. Vettiger, T. Akiyama, U. Staufer, H.-R. Hidber
Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 64 (1998), 1, 1-6
1261 Classification of Scanning Probe Microscopies
Gernot Friedbacher and Harald Fuchs
Pure Appl. Chem., 71 (1999), 7, pp. 1337-1357
1108 Comparing the resolution of magnetic force microscopes using the CAMST reference samples
L. Abelmann, B. Stiefel, K. Babcock, P.J.A. van Schendel, R. Proksch, H.J. Hug, M.E. Best, A. Farley, C. Lodder, M. Haast, T. Pfaffelhuber, G.P. Heydon, A. Moser, S.R. Hoon, S. Porthun
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 190 (1998), 1-2, 135-147
1635 Computational model of the imaging process in scanning-x microscopy
H. Gallarda and R. Jain
Proceedings of Conference on Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control, V, SPIE Vol. 1464 (1991), 459.
22 Contact resonance imaging - a simple approach to improve the resolution of AFM for biological and polymeric materials
K. Wadu-Mesthrige, N.A. Amro, J.C. Garno, S. Cruchon-Dupeyrat, G.-Y. Liu
Applied Surface Science, 175-176 (2001), 391-398
7 Contrast inversion in nc-AFM on Si(111)7x7 due to short-range electrostatic interactions
M. Guggisberg, O. Pfeiffer, S. Schar, V. Barwich, M. Bammerlin, C. Loppacher, R. Bennewitz, A. Baratoff, E. Meyer
Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 72 (2001), 7, S19-S22
38 Contrast mechanism in non-contact AFM on reactive surfaces
K. Terakura, R. Perez, I. Stich, M.C. Payne
Applied Surface Science, 123-124 (1998), 249-254
824 Contrast mechanism in non-contact SFM imaging of ionic surfaces
A.I. Livshits, A.L. Shluger, A.L. Rohl
Applied Surface Science, 140 (1999), 3-4, 327-332
463 Corrections to the van der Waals forces in application to atomic force microscopy
M. Bordag, G.L. Klimchitskaya, V.M. Mostepanenko
Surface Science, 328 (1995), 1-2, 129-134
465 Correlation between frequency-sweep hysteresis and phase imaging instability in tapping mode atomic force microscopy
G. Bar, R. Brandsch, M.-H.M.-H. Whangbo
Surface Science, 436 (1999), 1-3, L715-L723
973 Deformation, contact time, and phase-contrast in tapping mode scanning force microscopy
Tamayo J., Garcia R.
Langmuir 12 (1996), 4430-4435
830 Dependence of the measured monolayer height on applied forces in scanning force microscopy
X.D. Liu, M. Hartig, L.F. Chi, H. Fuchs
Thin Solid Films, 327-329 (1998), 262-267
1110 Description of magnetic force microscopy by three-dimensional tip Green's function for sample magnetic charges
H. Saito, S. Ishio, J. Chen
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 191 (1999), 1-2, 153-161
468 Description of phase imaging in tapping mode atomic force microscopy by harmonic approximation
M.-H. Whangbo, R. Brandsch, G. Bar
Surface Science, 411 (1998), 1-2, L794-L801
469 Design and application of scanning near-field optical/atomic force microscopy
T. Ataka, H. Muramatsu, K. Nakajima, N. Chiba, K. Homma, M. Fujihara
Thin Solid Films, 273 (1996), 1-2, 154-160
1604 Determining the form of atomic force microscope tips
P. Siedle, H-J. Butt. E.Bamberg, D.N. Wang, W. Kuhlbrand, J. Zach and M. Haider
Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 130 (1993) 361
499 Examination of the relationship between phase shift and energy dissipation in tapping mode atomic force microscopy by frequency-sweep and force-probe measurements
L. Delineau, G. Bar, R. Brandsch, M. Bruch, M.-H. Whangbo
Surface Science, 444 (2000), 1-3, L11-L16
75 Fine atomic image of mica cleavage planes obtained with an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a novel procedure for image processing
M. Baba, S. Kakitani, H. Ishii, T. Okuno
Chemical Physics, 221 (1997), 1-2, 23-31
504 Fourier transformed atomic force microscopy: tapping mode atomic force microscopy beyond the Hookian approximation
R.W. Stark, W.M. Heckl
Surface Science, 457 (2000), 1-2, 219-228
1023 Fractal analysis of scanning probe microscopy images
N. Almqvist
Surface Science, 355 (1996), 1-3, 221-228
507 Frequency modulation detection atomic force microscopy in the liquid environment
S.P. Jarvis, T. Ishida, T. Uchihashi, Y. Nakayama, H. Tokumoto
Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 72 (2001), 7, S129-S132
508 Frequency shift and energy dissipation in non-contact atomic-force microscopy
S.H. Ke, T. Uda, K. Terakura
Applied Surface Science, 157 (2000), 4, 361-366
518 Guidelines for the achievement of true atomic resolution with noncontact atomic force microscopy
Y. Sugawara, S. Morita
Applied Surface Science, 140 (1999), 3-4, 406-410
519 Harmonic responses of a cantilever interacting with elastomers in tapping mode atomic force microscopy
M.-H. Whangbo, G. Bar, R. Brandsch, L. Delineau
Surface Science, 448 (2000), 1, L179-L187
250 How to describe AFM constant force surfaces in repulsive mode?
E.V. Blagov, G.L. Klimchitskaya, A.A. Lobashov, V.M. Mostepanenko
Surface Science, 349 (1996), 2, 196-206
524 How to measure energy dissipation in dynamic mode atomic force microscopy
H. Fuchs, V.B. Elings, B. Anczykowski, J.P. Cleveland, B. Gotsmann
Applied Surface Science, 140 (1999), 3-4, 376-382
45 Imaging of chemical reactivity and buckled dimers on Si(100)2x1 reconstructed surface with noncontact AFM
T. Tsukamoto, T. Okada, T. Minobe, Y. Sugawara, T. Uchihashi, S. Orisaka, S. Morita
Applied Surface Science, 140 (1999), 3-4, 304-308
8 Imaging problems on insulators: What can be learnt from NC-AFM modelling on CaF2
A.S. Foster, A.L. Rohl, A.L. Shluger
Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 72 (2001), 7, S31-S34
225 Impact of atomic relaxation on the breaks of constant force surfaces in AFM
E.V. Blagov, G.L. Klimchitskaya, V.M. Mostepanenko
Surface Science, 410 (1998), 2-3, 158-169
14 Instrumentation of STM and AFM combined with transmission electron microscope
D. Erts, A. Lohmus, R. Lohmus, H. Olin
Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 72 (2001), 7, S71-S74
52 Interaction measurements between a tip and a sample in proximity regions controlled by tunneling current in a UHV STM-AFM
M. Tomitori, T. Arai
Applied Surface Science, 144-145 (1999), 501-504
837 Intercomparison of SEM, AFM, and Electrical Linewidths
J. S. Villarrubia, R. Dixson, S. Jones, J. R. Lowney, M. T. Postek, R. A. Allen, and M. W. Cresswell
Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XIII, Proc. SPIE 3677 (1999), pp. 587-598
1308 Lateral force microscopy - A quantitative approach
G.S. Watson, S. Myhra, C.T. Gibson
Wear, 213 (1997), 1-2, 72-79
786 Limits of force microscopy
Smith, D.P.E.
Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66 (1995), 3191-3195
1033 Melnikov-Based Dynamical Analysis of Microcantilevers in Scanning Probe Microscopy
M. Ashhab, M. V. Salapaka, M. Dahleh, I. Mezic
Nonlinear Dynamics, 20 (1999), 3, 197-220
1603 Mesoscopic Calibration of an Atomic Force Microscope
S.S. Sheiko, M. Moller, E.M.C.M. Reuvekamp and H.W. Zandbergen
Ultramicroscopy 53 (1994) 371-380
231 Model dependence of AFM simulations in non-contact mode
I.Y. Sokolov, G.S. Henderson, F.J. Wicks
Surface Science, 457 (2000), 1-2, 267-272
612 Molecular dynamics simulation of atomic force microscopy: imaging single-atom vacancies on Ag(001) and Pt(001)
M. Katagiri, R.M. Lynden-Bell, D.L. Patrick
Surface Science, 431 (1999), 1-3, 260-268
881 Molecular dynamics study of scanning force microscopy on self-assembled monolayers
T. Bonner, A. Baratoff
Surface Science, 377-379 (1997), 1082-1086
632 Nanoparticle sizing: a comparative study using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and ferromagnetic resonance
L.M. Lacava, B.M. Lacava, R.B. Azevedo, Z.G.M. Lacava, N. Buske, A.L. Tronconi, P.C. Morais
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 225 (2001), 1-2, 79-83
318 Normal and lateral force investigation using magnetically activated force sensors
S.P. Jarvis, H. Yamada, K. Kobayashi, A. Toda, H. Tokumoto
Applied Surface Science, 157 (2000), 4, 314-319
1450 Novel nanoindentation method for characterising multiphase materials
N.X. Randall, C. Julia-Schmutz, J.M. Soro, J. von Stebut, G. Zacharie
Thin Solid Films, 308-309 (1997), 1-4, 297-303
656 Observation of voltage contrast in non contact resonant mode Atomic Force Microscopy
P. Girard, G.C. Solal, S. Belaidi
Microelectronic Engineering, 31 (1996), 1-4, 215-225
659 On possibility of spin-polarized atomic force microscopy
H.J. Reittu
Surface Science, 334 (1995), 1-3, 257-262
664 Phase change detection of attractive force gradient by using a quartz resonator in noncontact atomic force microscopy
R. Nishi, I. Houda, T. Aramata, Y. Sugawara, S. Morita
Applied Surface Science, 157 (2000), 4, 332-336
665 Phase imaging and stiffness in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy
M.-H. Whangbo, S.N. Magonov, V. Elings
Surface Science, 375 (1997), 2-3, l385-l391
32 Phase imaging as an extension to tapping mode AFM for the identification of material properties on humidity-sensitive surfaces
I. Schmitz, M. Schreiner, G. Friedbacher, M. Grasserbauer
Applied Surface Science, 115 (1997), 2, 190-198
1452 Progress in determination of the area function of indenters used for nanoindentation
K. Herrmann, N.M. Jennett, W. Wegener, J. Meneve, K. Hasche, R. Seemann
Thin Solid Films, 377-378 (2000), 394-400
156 Proposal for new atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging for a high aspect structure (digital probing mode AFM)
S. Hosaka, T. Morimoto, K. Kuroda, H. Kunitomo, T. Hiroki, T. Kitsukawa, S. Miwa, H. Yanagimoto, K. Murayama
Microelectronic Engineering, 57-58 (2001), 651-657
48 Pseudo-non-contact AFM imaging?
F.J. Wicks, G.S. Henderson, I.Y. Sokolov
Applied Surface Science, 140 (1999), 3-4, 362-365
62 Quantitative electrostatic force measurement in AFM
S. Jeffery, A. Oral, J.B. Pethica
Applied Surface Science, 157 (2000), 4, 280-284
221 Quantum oscillations in surface-tip transfer of adatoms on AFM/STM with a dissipative environment
I.S. Tilinin, M.A. Van Hove, M. Salmeron
Surface Science, 393 (1997), 1-3, l88-l92
897 Resonance modes of voltage-modulated scanning force microscopy
M. Labardi, V. Likodimos, M. Allegrini
Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 72 (2001), 7, S79-S85
1636 Restoration of scanning probe microscope images
G. S. Pingali and R. Jain
Proceedings IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision, (1992) pp. 282-289.
251 Role of the adhesion between a nanotip and a soft material in tapping mode AFM
F. Dubourg, J.P. Aime
Surface Science, 466 (2000), 1-3, 137-143
898 Role of the force of friction on curved surfaces in scanning force microscopy
J.P. Aime, Z. Elkaakour, S. Gauthier, D. Michel, T. Bouhacina, J. Curely
Surface Science, 329 (1995), 1-2, 149-156
29 Roughness fractal approach of oxidised surfaces by AFM and diffuse X-ray reflectometry measurements
J.C. Arnault, A. Knoll, E. Smigiel, A. Cornet
Applied Surface Science, 171 (2001), 3-4, 189-196
984 Scan speed limit in atomic force microscopy
Butt H.J., Siedle P., Seifert K., Fendler K., Seeger T., Bamberg E., Weisenhorn A.L., Goldie K., Engel A.
J. Microsc. 169 (1993), 75-84
916 Scanning force microscopy simulations of well-characterized nanostructures on dielectric and semiconducting substrates
G. Cohen-Solal, F. Touhari, X. Bouju, M. Devel, C. Girard
Applied Surface Science, 125 (1998), 3-4, 351-359
1633 Scanning tunneling microscopy on rough surfaces-deconvolution of constant current images
G. Reiss, F. Schneider, J. Vancea, and H. Hoffmann
Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, (1990), 867
63 Self-assembled monolayers containing biphenyl derivatives as challenge for nc-AFM
A. Nakasa, U. Akiba, M. Fujihira
Applied Surface Science, 157 (2000), 4, 326-331
921 Self-excited force-sensing microcantilevers with piezoelectric thin films for dynamic scanning force microscopy
T. Itoh, T. Suga
Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 54 (1996), 1-3, 477-481
30 Simulated nc-AFM images of Si(001) surface with nanotube tip
K. Tagami, N. Sasaki, M. Tsukada
Applied Surface Science, 172 (2001), 3-4, 301-306
245 Simulation of AFM/LFM by molecular dynamics: Role of lateral force in contact-mode AFM imaging
M. Komiyama, K. Tsujimichi, K. Tazawa, A. Hirotani, H. Yamano, A. Miyamoto, E. Broclawik, M. Kubo
Surface Science, 357-358 (1996), 222-227
698 Simulation of atomic force microscopy image variations due to tip apex size: Appearance of half spots
M. Komiyama, K. Tazawa, K. Tsujimichi, A. Hirotani, M. Kubo, A. Miyamoto
Thin Solid Films, 281-282 (1996), 1-2, 580-583
243 Simulation of interaction force between Si tip and Si(111)√3×√3-Ag surface of IET structure in noncontact AFM
N. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, H. Aizawa, M. Tsukada
Surface Science, 493 (2001), 1-3, 188-193
9 Simulation of NC-AFM images of xenon(111)
H. Holscher, W. Allers, U.D. Schwarz, A. Schwarz, R. Wiesendanger
Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 72 (2001), 7, S35-S38
11 Simultaneous imaging of tunneling current and damping energy by noncontact-AFM in ultra-high vacuum
T. Arai, M. Tomitori
Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 72 (2001), 7, S51-S54
927 Spin-contrast in non-contact SFM on oxide surfaces: theoretical modelling of NiO(001) surface
A.S. Foster, A.L. Shluger
Surface Science, 490 (2001), 1-2, 211-219
929 Strength measurement and calculations on silicon-based nanometric oscillators for scanning force microcopy operating in the gigahertz range
H. Kawakatsu, H. Toshiyoshi, D. Saya, K. Fukushima, H. Fujita
Applied Surface Science, 157 (2000), 4, 320-325
972 Studies of vibrating atomic force microscope cantilevers in liquid
Schaeffer T.E., Cleveland J.P., Ohnesorge F.M., Walters D.A., Hansma P.K.
J Appl Phys 80 (1996), 3622-3627.
933 Study of tip-sample interaction in scanning force microscopy
M. Luna, J. Colchero, J. Gomez-Herrero, A.M. Baro
Applied Surface Science, 157 (2000), 4, 285-289
1070 Surface analysis algorithms for scanning probe microscopy
C. Lindquist, F.K. Urban, C.S. Lindquist, F.K.I. Urban
Thin Solid Films, 270 (1995), 1-2, 399-405
938 Surface roughness of thin layers - A comparison of XRR and SFM measurements
Z. Stachura, M. Lekka, O. Filies, J. Lekki, O. Boling, K. Grewer, B. Cleff
Applied Surface Science, 141 (1999), 3-4, 357-365
233 The contrast mechanism for true atomic resolution by AFM in non-contact mode: Quasi-non-contact mode?
I.Y. Sokolov, G.S. Henderson, F.J. Wicks
Surface Science, 381 (1997), 1, l558-l562
244 The height dependence of image contrast when imaging by non-contact AFM
I.Y. Sokolov, G.S. Henderson
Surface Science, 464 (2000), 2-3, L745-L751
12 The measurement of hysteretic forces by dynamic AFM
B. Gotsmann, H. Fuchs
Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 72 (2001), 7, S55-S58
766 The role of damping in phase imaging in tapping mode atomic force microscopy
L. Wang
Surface Science, 429 (1999), 1-3, 178-185
950 The role of shear forces in scanning force microscopy: a comparison between the jumping mode and tapping mode
F. Moreno-Herrero, P.J. de Pablo, J. Colchero, J. Gomez-Herrero, A.M. Baro
Surface Science, 453 (2000), 1-3, 152-158
769 Theoretical analysis of atomic-scale friction infrictional-force microscopy
N. Sasaki, M. Tsukada, S. Fujisawa, Y. Sugawara, S. Morita
Tribology Letters, 4 (1998), 2, 125-128
770 Theoretical evaluation of the frequency shift and dissipated power in noncontact atomic force microscopy
N. Sasaki, M. Tsukada
Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 72 (2001), 7, S39-S42
771 Theoretical simulation of atomic-scale friction in atomic force microscopy
N. Sasaki, K. Kobayashi, M. Tsukada
Surface Science, 357-358 (1996), 92-95
64 Theoretical simulation of noncontact AFM images of Si(111)√3×√3-Ag surface based on Fourier expansion method
N. Sasaki, H. Aizawa, M. Tsukada
Applied Surface Science, 157 (2000), 4, 367-372
47 Theory for the effect of the tip-surface interaction potential on atomic resolution in forced vibration system of noncontact AFM
N. Sasaki, M. Tsukada
Applied Surface Science, 140 (1999), 3-4, 339-343
775 Time-frequency modeling of atomic force microscopy
D. Dragoman, M. Dragoman
Optics Communications, 140 (1997), 4-6, 220-225
1362 STM studies: spatial resolution limits to fit observations in nanotechnology
P. D. Szkutnik, A. Piednoir, A. Ronda, F. Marchi, D. Tonneau, H. Dallaporta, M. Hanbucken
Applied Surface Science 164 (2000) 169-174
1324 Mechanism for photon emission from Au nano-hemispheres induced by scanning tunneling microscopy
Y. H. Liau, N. F. Scherer
Appl. Phys. Lett. 74 (1999), 26, pp. 3966-3968
1326 High-speed force sensor for force microscopy and profilometry utilizing a quartz tuning fork
Appl. Phys. Lett. 74 (1999), 26, p. 4070
1327 The influence of Coulomb interaction of localized charges on low-temperature scanning tunnelling spectra of surface nanodefects
Maslova N.S. Oreshkin A.I., Oreshkin S.I., Panov V.I., Savinov S.V., Kalachev A.A.
J. Phys.: Cond. Matter 13 (2001) 18, 3941-3948
1331 Determination of tip-sample interaction forces from measured dynamic force spectroscopy curves
B. Gotsmann, B. Anczykowski, C. Seidel, H. Fuchs
Applied Surface Science 140 (1999) 314-319
1332 Hysteresis generated by attractive interaction: oscillating behavior of a vibrating tip-microlever system near a surface
R. Boisgard, D. Michel, J.P. Aimé
Surface Science 401 (1998) 199-205
1333 Scanning tunneling microscope-induced molecular motion and its effect on the image formation
Matthias Böhringer, Wolf-Dieter Schneider, Richard Berndt
Surface Science 408 (1998) 72-85
1334 The use of macros in AFM image analysis and image processing
Barrett S. D., Bickmore B. R., Rufe E., Hochella M. F., Torzo G. and Cerolini. D
J. Comp. Ass. Microsc. 10 (1998), 77
1338 Atomic force microscope for direct comparison measurement of step height and crystalline lattice spacing
T. Fujii, K. Imabori, H. Kawakatsu, Sh. Watanabe and H. Bleuler
Nanotechnology 10 (1999) 380-384
1345 Imitation of non-contact mode while scanning in the presence of an electric double layer?
I. Yu. Sokolov, G.S. Henderson, F. J. Wicks
Applied Surface Science 140 (1999) 422-427
1346 Theoretical and experimental evidence for "true" atomic resolution under non-vacuum conditions
I. Yu. Sokolov, G.S. Henderson, F. J. Wicks
J. Appl. Phys. 86 (1999) 10, 5537-5540
1358 Sensitivity of vibration modes of atomic force microscope cantilevers in continuous surface contact
Win-Jin Chang
Nanotechnology 13 (2002) 510-514
1362 STM studies: spatial resolution limits to fit observations in nanotechnology
P. D. Szkutnik, A. Piednoir, A. Ronda, F. Marchi, D. Tonneau, H. Dallaporta, M. Hanbucken
Applied Surface Science 164 (2000) 169-174
1366 Measuring discrete feature dimensions in atomic force microscopy images with Image SXM
Bickmore B. R., Rufe E., Barrett S. D. and Hochella M. F.
Geol. Mater. Res. 1 (1999), 5 ( papers/v1/v1n5/v1n5abs.html)
1368 Opening and viewing image data files
Entwistle A.
Proc. Roy. Microsc. Soc. 36 (2001), 101
1375 A relocated technique of atomic force microscopy (AFM) samples and its application in molecular biology
Aiguo Wu, Zhuang Li, Lihua Yu, Hongda Wang and Erkang Wang
Ultramicroscopy, Vol. 92 (3-4) (2002) pp. 201-207
1377 Bias-induced forces in conducting atomic force microscopy and contact charging of organic monolayers
X.D. Cui, X. Zarate, J. Tomfohr, A. Primak, A.L. Moore, T.A. Moore, D. Gust, G. Harris, O.F. Sankey and S.M. Lindsay
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1378 A complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect-transistor-compatible atomic force microscopy tip fabrication process and integrated atomic force microscopy cantilevers fabricated with this process
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1382 Self-sensing piezoresistive cantilever and its magnetic force microscopy applications
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1382 Developments for inverted atomic force microscopy
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1384 Mapping and control of atomic force on Si(111)√3×√3-Ag surface using noncontact atomic force microscope
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1410 Materials' properties measurements: Choosing the optimal scanning probe microscope configuration
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1416 How does a tip tap?
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1418 Mapping and control of atomic force with noncontact atomic force microscopy
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1419 New Method for Noncontact AFM Image Simulations
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1420 Theory of non-contact dissipation force microscopy
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1421 Software For Scanning Microscopy
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1422 Fourier Expansion Method for Noncontact AFM Image Simulations-Application to Si(111) √3×√3Ag Surface
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1423 Effect of Microscopic Nonconservative Process on Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy
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1424 Damping Mechanism in Dynamic Force Microscopy
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1425 Simulated Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy Images of Si(001) Surface with Silicon Tip
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1426 Models of image contrast in scanning force microscopy on insulators
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1428 Experimental validation of theoretical models for the frequency response of atomic force microscope cantilever beams immersed in fluids
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1429 Oscillatory Forces in Liquid Atomic Force Microscopy
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1430 Dynamic Scanning Force Microscopy at Low Temperatures
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1431 Development of a Versatile Atomic Force Microscope within a Scanning Electron Microscope
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1432 Development of Low Temperature Ultrahigh Vacuum Atomic Force Microscope/Scanning Tunneling Microscope
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1433 Simultaneous Imaging of Tunneling Current Variation by Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy in Ultrahigh Vacuum
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1434 Velocity Dependence and Limitations of Friction Force Microscopy of Mica and Graphite
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1435 How Much Chemistry is There in Chemical Force Microscopy?
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1436 Bases of Chemical Force Microscopy by Friction: Energetics and Dynamics of Wearless Friction between Organic Monolayers in Terms of Chemical and Physical Properties of Molecules
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1437 Atomic Force Microscopy Cantilevers for Sensitive Lateral Force Detection
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1438 Protein Stretching IV: Analysis of Force-Extension Curves
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1439 Low-temperature scanning probe microscopy of surface and subsurface charges
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1440 Plug "n" play scanning probe microscopy
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1444 Electrostatic energy calculation for the interpretation of scanning probe microscopy experiments
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1449 Investigation of nanolocal fluorescence resonance energy transfer for scanning probe microscopy
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1200 Chemical force microscopy. Method maps functional groups of surfaces
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1207 Low temperature magnetic force microscopy with enhanced sensitivity based on piezoresistive detection
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1208 A Model for Friction in Atomic Force Microscopy
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1216 Atomic Force Microscopy at Solid-Liquid Interfaces
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1217 Alternative method for the activation and measurement of lateral forces using magnetically controlled atomic force microscopy
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1230 Scanning Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy - Chances and Limitations for In-Situ Delamination Studies
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1237 Simulation of SCM measurements on micro-sectioned and bevelled n+-p samples
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1238 SCaMsim, a new 3D simulation tool for SCM
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1240 Electrical simulation of scanning capacitance microscopy imaging of the pn junction with semiconductor probe tips
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1252 Theories of Scanning Probe Microscopes: Origins, Applications and Limitations
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1255 Measuring the tip-sample separation in dynamic force microscopy
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1259 Manipulation of nanoparticles using dynamic force microscopy: simulation and experiments
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1263 Nonmonotonic behavior of the scanning capacitance microscope for large dynamic range samples
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1282 Theoretical modelling of scanning tunnelling microscopy, scanning tunnelling spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy
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1285 Nanomechanics from atomic resolution to molecular recognition based on atomic force microscopy technology
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1290 Kelvin probe force microscopy in ultra high vacuum using amplitude modulation detection of the electrostatic forces
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1297 Hysteresis in Force Probe Measurements: a Dynamical Systems Perspective
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1298 Development of a continuous microscratch technique in an atomic force microscope and its application to study scratch resistance of ultrathin hard amorphous carbon coatings
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1677 Quantitative Work Function Measurements on a Nanometer Scale: Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy in Ultrahigh Vacuum
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1679 Work Function Imaging using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy
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1689 Dynamic Force Microscopy in Fluid
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1692 STM Contrast, Electron Transfer Chemistry and Conduction in Molecules
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1693 Relationship between stiffness and force in single molecule pulling experiments
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1840 A constant compliance force modulation technique for scanning force microscopy (SFM) imaging of polymer surface elasticity
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1997 Cantilever dynamics in quasinoncontact force microscopy: Spectroscopic aspects
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2120 Electrostatic tip-sample interaction in immersion force microscopy of semiconductors
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2147 Fractal surface dimension from cyclic I-V studies and atomic-force microscopy: Role of noncontiguous reaction sites
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2148 Freeze-substitution as a preparative technique for immunoelectronmicroscopy: evaluation by atomic force microscopy
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2178 Imaging material properties by resonant tapping-force microscopy: A model investigation
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2360 Quantitative analysis of a fracture surface by atomic force microscopy
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2372 Role of the tip atom in STM and AFM: Theory of atom transfer
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2483 The effect of deformation on the lateral resolution of atomic force microscopy
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2504 Theory of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Probe of Impurity States in a D-Wave Superconductor
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1843 Vortices in stratified superconductors: Application to magnetic force microscopy
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1839 A closer look at a molecular motor by atomic force microscopy
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2063 Data analysis using the Internet: the World Wide Web scanning probe microscopy data analysis system
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2114 Electrochemical Applications of in Situ Scanning Probe Microscopy
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2145 Force-distance curves by AFM. A powerful technique for studying surface interactions
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2224 Introduction: Force and Tunneling Microscopy
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2395 Scanning force microscopy under aqueous solutions
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2396 Scanning probe microscopy
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2400 Scanning probe microscopy. Probing the future
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2402 Scratching the Surface: Fundamental Investigations of Tribology with Atomic Force Microscopy
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2451 Subpiconewton intermolecular force microscopy
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1908 Atomic force microscopy and modeling of natural elastic fibrillin polymers
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2125 Evaluation of Surface Ionization Parameters from AFM Data
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1850 A physical approach to reduce nonspecific adhesion in molecular recognition atomic force microscopy
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2044 Comparative Study of Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy to Assess Self-assembled Monolayer Coverage on Any Type of Substrate
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2153 Graphical method for force analysis: macromolecular mechanics with atomic force microscopy
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2164 High speed atomic force microscopy of biomolecules by image tracking
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2332 Optimization of adhesion mode atomic force microscopy resolves individual molecules in topography and adhesion
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1862 Adhesion artefacts in atomic force microscopy imaging
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1864 Adhesion forces measured by atomic force microscopy in humid air
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1881 Alignment of AFM images using an iterative mathematical procedure
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1882 Amplitude curves and operating regimes in dynamic atomic force microscopy
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1900 Aspects of the physical chemistry of polymers, biomaterials and mineralised tissues investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM)
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2034 Combined scanning electrochemical-atomic force microscopy
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2053 Controllable reversibility of an sp(2) to sp(3) transition of a single wall nanotube under the manipulation of an AFM tip: A nanoscale electromechanical switch?
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2143 Force Calibration in Lateral Force Microscopy
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1828 Influence of force acting on side face of carbon nanotube in atomic force microscopy
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2309 New Approach to the Study of Particle-Surface Adhesion Using Atomic Force Microscopy
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2331 Optimal sensitivity for molecular recognition MAC-mode AFM
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2397 Scanning probe microscopy
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2409 Shear modulation force microscopy study of near surface glass transition temperatures
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2437 Structure and spectroscopy of surface defects from scanning force microscopy: theoretical predictions
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2516 Topographic and phase-contrast imaging in atomic force microscopy
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1854 A sample scanning system with nanometric accuracy for quantitative SPM measurements
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1911 Atomic force microscopy applications in macromolecular crystallography
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1821 ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY: You may squeeze the atoms but don't mangle the surface!
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2036 Combining AFM and FRET for high resolution fluorescence microscopy
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2066 Detachment of Particles from Surfaces: An AFM Study
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2106 Effect of Gravity on Colloidal Deposition Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy
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2122 Energy dissipation in atomic force microscopy and atomic loss processes
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2131 Examination of line crossings by atomic force microscopy
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2144 Force measurements on single molecular contacts through evanescent wave microscopy
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2200 Implementation of self-sensing SPM cantilevers for nano-force measurement in microrobotics
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2217 Integrating an ultramicroelectrode in an AFM cantilever: combined technology for enhanced information
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2219 Interfacial water dielectric-permittivity-profile measurements using atomic force microscopy
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2221 Intermittent contact AFM using the higher modes of weak cantilever
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2230 Investigation of crossed SAW fields by scanning acoustic force microscopy
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1834 Nanotweezers Consisting of Carbon Nanotubes Operating in an Atomic Force Microscope
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2310 Noncontact electrochemical imaging with combined scanning electrochemical atomic force microscopy
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2361 Quantitative Analysis of Fluid Interface-Atomic Force Microscopy
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2377 Scaling-index method as an image processing tool in scanning-probe microscopy
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2406 Semi-automatized processing of AFM force-spectroscopy data
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2411 Silicon technology-based micro-systems for atomic force microscopy/photon scanning tunnelling microscopy
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2431 Static Method to Evaluate Interaction Forces by AFM
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2497 The saga of AFM
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2505 Thermal enhancement of AFM phase contrast for imaging diblock copolymer thin film morphology
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2506 Thermomechanical noise of a free v-shaped cantilever for atomic-force microscopy
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2531 Unambiguous interpretation of atomically resolved force microscopy images of an insulator
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1849 A novel sample holder allowing atomic force microscopy on transmission electron microscopy specimen grids: repetitive, direct correlation between AFM and TEM images
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1891 Analysis of matrix dynamics by atomic force microscopy
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1956 Atomic force microscopy probes go electrochemical
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2037 Comment on "Damping mechanism in dynamic force microscopy"
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2050 Contact mechanics modeling of pull-off measurements: effect of solvent, probe radius, and chemical binding probability on the detection of single-bond rupture forces by atomic force microscopy
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Anal. Chem., 74 (2002) 13, 3096-3104
2079 Developments in dynamic force microscopy and spectroscopy
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2102 Dynamic simulations of adhesion and friction in chemical force microscopy
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2126 Evaluation of the contact resonance frequencies in atomic force microscopy as a method for surface characterisation
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Ultrasonics, 40 (2002) 1-8, 49-54
2213 Influence of metal ion sorption on colloidal surface forces measured by atomic force microscopy
C. J. Chin, S. Yiacoumi, C. Tsouris
Environ. Sci. Technol., 36 (2002) 3, 343-348
2222 Interplay between nonlinearity, scan speed, damping, and electronics in frequency modulation atomic-force microscopy
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2268 Material anisotropy revealed by phase contrast in intermittent contact atomic force microscopy
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2271 Measuring forces with the AFM: polymeric surfaces in liquids
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2278 Membranes at interfaces: structure studies by AFM and time-resolved neutron reflectivity
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2398 Scanning probe microscopy
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2605 Quantitative determination of the magnetization and stray field of a single domain Co/Pt dot with magnetic force microscopy
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2572 An apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope and its application to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multiphoton fluorescence imaging
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2598 Quantitative interpretation of magnetic force microscopy images from soft patterned elements
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2603 Quantitative field measurements from magnetic force microscope tips and comparison with point and extended charge models
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2562 Tapping mode atomic force microscopy in liquid with an insulated piezoelectric microactuator
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2398 Scanning probe microscopy
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2708 Small signal amplification using parametric resonance in NcAFM imaging
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